Document Type : Research and Full Length Article
Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Tech. and Eng., M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
Head, Civil Engineering Department, FTE, M. S. U., Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
Surat is a highly developed, thickly populated cosmopolitan character city with full of various activities going on day and night. Any natural calamity which causes loss of lives to property and infrastructure along with effects on industrial processes going on has serious impact on economy of the state. Therefore, it becomes highly necessary that flood events are studied and analyzed properly in order to propose adequate flood control and protection measures in time to come. Many research organizations like Central Water Commission (CWC), Gujarat Engineering Research Institute (GERI), Central Water Power and Research Station (CWPRS), are already involved in study of flood phenomena of Tapi River. It appears to be of vital importance to initiate studies as an extension in lights of finding of such studies, using modern computer, model and software technology. In this research paper in detail, morphological processes in Tapi River Basin studied. It is also studied presently available mathematical models by proving them for Tapi flood data and to develop an “Optimization Process” to minimize the flood impacts. It is further attempted to validate the model with studies on physical model development with studies on physical model developed/constructed by any Govt. or Semi Govt. organization like CWC, GERI, and CWPRS etc. Subsequent to construction of Ukai dam large urban developments have taken place along Tapi river banks. With the moderation of flood at Ukai reservoir, no major floods were experienced at Surat and Hazira till 1994. During 1994, 1998 and 2006 floods of the order of 14870 m3/s (5.25 lakh cfs), 19820 m3/s (7.00cfs) and 28315 m3/s (9.10lakh cfs) were experienced. Large portion of Surat area was inundated along with large scale flooding at Bhata, Bharatpur, Surat, and surrounding areas. There were heavy damages of industrial and urban properties costing 21000 Crores. This paper presents CHARIMA mathematical model for prediction of water levels in Tapi Creek under influence of flood and tide. This mathematical model is capable of handling unsteady floods in river channel network validated for September 1998 flood situation and then applied for predictions with 28315 m3/s (10 lakh cfs flood discharge). On the basis of the results this study the necessary measures to be taken for flood forecast and flood protection schemes to minimi Tapi river flood impacts on Surat, Gujarat, India, have been suggested.