Growth Responses of Secale cereale and S. ceremont to Priming Treatments under Salinity Stress

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Range Management, Department of Range Management Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor

2 Department of Range Management Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor

3 Rangeland Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural sciences and Natural Resources University

4 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran


Soil salinity affects a large part of the region in Iran. Salinity covers 12.5% of
total area of the country. Priming of seeds in sodium chloride and water (hydro-priming)
has been reported to be a simple technique for enhancing the seedling establishment and
germination performance in the seeds of many crops and small seeded grasses under the
stress conditions. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the effects of halo- and
hydro-priming on Secale cereale and S. ceremont growth response under NaCl induced
salinity stress conditions. Seeds of S. cereale and S. ceremont were immersed in sterile
distilled water (hydro-priming). For the halo-priming treatments, concentrations of 125,
250 and 500 mm of sodium chloride were prepared. This experiment was carried out in
three levels (0, 100 and 200 mm) of salinity stress. The means comparison indicates that
the seedling traits of both species are significantly affected by both halopriming and
hydropriming. In both species of Secale, all the traits were decreased significantly by
increasing salt stress levels so that the most reduction of all the traits was observed at the
highest level of salinity stress concentration as compared to the control. Increasing NaCl
concentration in halopriming treatment solution significantly reduced all the traits in both
species so that the most reduction of all traits was observed at the highest level of salinity
stress concentration as compared to the control. S. cereale and S. ceremont appear to be
poor salt-tolerant. Halo-priming in the S. ceremont with the concentratios of 125 and 250
mmol for 24h at the highest level of salt stress showed the alleviation of detrimental effects
of salinity. Halo-priming somewhat in the S. ceremont was suggested in the areas with high
salinity to increase the efficiency of species.


Literature Cited
Abdul-Baki, A. A. and Anderson, J. D., 1973. Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 630-633.
Afzal, I., Rauf, S., Basra, S. M. A. and Murtaza, G., 2008. Halopriming improves vigor, metabolism of reserves and ionic contents in wheat seedlings under salt stress. Plant Soil Environment. 54: 382-388.
Afzal, I., Aslam, N., Mahmood, F., Hameed, A., Irfan, S. and Ahmad, G., 2004. Enhancement of germination and emergence of canola seeds by different priming techniques. Caderno de Pesquisa Sér. Bio. Santa Cruz do Sul. 16: 19-34.
Akhani, H. and Ghorbanli, M., 1993. A contribution to the halophytic vegetation and flora of Iran. H. Lieth and A. Al Masoom (eds): Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants, pp 35-44.
Ashraf, M., Foolad, M. R. and Donald, L. S., 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment e a shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, pp. 223-71.
Botia, p., carvajal, M., Cerad, A. and Martinez. V., 1998. Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity during germination and early vegetative growth. Agronomie, 18: 503-513.
Carvajal, M., Del Amor, F. M., Fernabdez-ballester, G., Martinez, V. and Cerad, A., 1998. Time course of solute accumulation and water relations in muskmelon plats exposed to salt during different growth stage. Plant Sci. 138: 103-112.
Del Amor, F. M., Martinez, V. and Cerad, A., 1999. Salinity duration and concentration affect fruit yield and quality and growth ad mineral composition of melon plants grown in perlite. Hortscience, 34: 1234-1237.
Demir, I. and Mavi, K., 2008. Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on the germination of pepper seeds of different maturation stages. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 51: 897–902.
Di Girolamo, G. and Barbanti, L., 2012. Treatment conditions and biochemical processes influencing seed priming effectiveness. Italian Jour. Agronomy, 7: 1-25.
Dianati, G. A., Behtari, B., Alizadeh, M. A. and Jafari, A. A., 2010. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth of Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) J. A. Schultes. Povolzhskiy Jour. Ecology, 3: 323-330.
Evenari, M., 1964. Hardening treatment of seeds as a means of increasing yields under conditions of inadequate moisture. Nature, 204: 1010-1011.
Ghassemi-Golezani, G. and Esmaeilpour, B., 2008. The effect of salt priming on the performance of differentially matured cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds, Jour. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 36: 67-70.
Giri, G. S. and Schillinger, W. F., 2003. Seed priming winter wheat for germination emergence and yield. Crop Sine. 43: 2135- 2141.
Guzman, M. and Olave, J., 2004 . Effects of N-Form and salin priming on germination and vegetation growth of Galia-Type Melon under salinity. Acta Horticulturae. 659: 253- 260.
Hanif, M. and Davies, M. S., 1998. A Comparison of the Effect of NaCl on the Cell Doubling Time of The Root Apical Meristem In Triticum aestivum. Pakistan Jour. Biological Sciences. 1: 175-178.
Hardegree, S. P. and Van Vactor, S. S., 2000. Germination and emergence of primed grass seeds under field and simulated-field temperature regimes. Annals of Botany, 85: 379–390.
Heuzé, V., Tran, G. and Nozière, P., 2013. Rye forage. A program by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. last updated on February 13, 2013.
Heydecker, W. and Coolbaer, P., 1977. Seed treatments for improved performance survey and attempted prognosis. Seed Sci. Tech. 5: 353–425.
ISTA, 1985. International Seed Testing Association. ISTA Handbook on Seedling Evaluation.Jisha K. C. and Puthur J. T., 2014. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. DOI 10.1007/s12298-014-0234-6.
Kaur, S., Gupta, A. K. and Kaur, N., 2005. Seed Priming Increases Crop Yield Possibly by Modulating Enzymes of Sucrose Metabolism in
  Chickpea. Jour. Agronomy and Crop Science. 191: 81-87.
Kaya, M. D., Okcu, G., Atak, M., Cıkılı, Y. and Kolsarıcı, O., 2006. Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eur. Jour. Agron. 24: 291–295
Kelley, L. and Mutch, D. R., 2011. Harvesting irrigated cover crops as forage. Michigan State University Extension, Purdue Extension.
Li, J., Yinb, L. Y., Jongsma, M. A. and Wang, C. Y., 2011. Effects of light, Hydropriming and abiotic stress on seed germination, and shoot and root growth of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). Industrial Crops and Products, 34: 1543– 1549.
Madakadze, I. C., Prithiviraj, B., Madakadze, R. M., Stewart, K., Peterson, P., Coulman, B. E. and Smith, D. L., 2000. Effect of pre-plant seed conditioning treatment on the germination of switch grass (Panicum virgatum L.). Seed Science and Technology, 28: 403-411.
Murungu, F. S., Chiduza, C., Nyamugafata, P., Clark, L. J. and Whaley, W. R., 2004. Effect of on-farm seed priming on emergence and yield of cotton and maize in a semi-arid area of Zimbabwe. Experimental Agriculture, 40: 23-36.
Panwar, P. and Bhardwaj, S. D., 2005. Hand Book of Practical Forestry, Agrobios, India, 21p.
Peng, Q., Li, C., Song, M. and Nan, Z., 2013. Effects of seed Hydropriming on growth of Festuca sinensis infected with Neotyphodium endophyte. Fungal ecology. 6: 83-91.
Sargeant, M., Sale, P. and Tang, C., 2006. Salt priming improves establishment of Distichlis spicata under saline conditions. Aus. Jour. Agric. Res. 57: 1259–1265.
Sencer, H. A. and Hawkes, J. G., 1980. On the origin of cultivated rye. Biol Jour. Linn Soc, 13: 299–313.
Sivritepe, N., Sivritepe, H. O. and Eris, A., 2003. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon seedlings grown under saline conditions. Jour. Scientia Agricola, 97: 229-237.
Smith, P. T. and Cobb, B. G., 1991. Accelerated germination of pepper seed by priming with salt solutions and water. Jour. Hort Science, 26: 417-419.
Taylor, A. G., Allen, P. S., Bennett, M. A., Bradford, K.J., Burris, J.S. and Misra, K., 1998. Seed enhancements. Seed Science Research, 8: 245-256.