Rangelands Goods and Services Local People Views and Priorities (Case Study: Hezarjarib Rangelands, Mazandaran Province, Iran)

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article

Authors

1 Researcher and Lecturer, Saee Institute of Higher Education, Gorgan

2 Rangeland Sciences

3 Natural Resources Department, University of Jiroft, Jiroft

4 Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Gonbad Kavous University

Abstract

Rangelands are the main sources of forage for livestock feeding by local
people. Beside forage production, rangeland ecosystems provide many other goods and
services such as medicinal plants, recreation, soil and water conservation, wildlife habitat,
fishing, hunting, hiking, etc. Nevertheless, there are no much information about the way
that local communities think about the rangelands goods and services. Therefore, a study
was conducted to examine how local people think about rangelands goods and services and
what their priorities are. The statistical populations were farmers, pastoralists and
beekeepers of Hezarjarib, Mazandaran Province, Iran and 100 people of them were
randomly selected as a sample. First, 17 indices of rangeland importance (goods and
services) were identified through questionnaires and oral interviews. Each indicator was
questioned using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Validity was established using a panel of
experts and Cronbach's alpha was used for reliability of questionnaire. Data were analyzed
and then, interpreted using coefficients of variance. Medicinal plants, beekeeping, food
production for human and grazing lands for livestock were the first four priorities
respectively considered as the most important indices by local people. Aquaculture and
fishing and soil conservation with the highest CVs were considered as the less important
indices in local people views. The results showed that the extent of range exploitation had
significant relationships with the education of exploiters, number of livestock, income and
farmland area. It was concluded that rangelands goods and services should be defined and
evaluated based on local people views to be considered as a source of alternative income or
new enterprises for local people.

Keywords


    Literature Cited

Campbell, B. M., Luckert, M. and Scoones, I., 1997. Local-level valuation of savanna resources: a case study from Zimbabwe. Economic Botany, 51(1): 59–77.

Dale, V. H., Brown, S., Haeuber, R. A., Hobbs, N.T., Huntly, N., Naiman, R. J., Riebsame, W.E., Turner, M. G. and Valone, T.J., 2000. Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land. Ecological Applications, 10: 639–670.

Eskandari, N., Alizade, A. and Mahdavi, F., 2008. Policy of range management in Iran. Organization of Forest, rangelands and watershed of Iran. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).

Foley, J. A., DeFries, R., Asner, G. P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S. R., Chapin, F. S., Coe, M. T., Daily, G. C., Gibbs, H. K., Helkowski, J. H., Holloway, T., Howard, E. A., Kucharik, C. J., Monfreda, D., Patz, J. A., Prentice, I. C., Ramankutty, N. and Snyder, P. K., 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science, 309: 570- 574.

Havstad, K. M., Petersa, P. C., Skaggsb, R., Brownc, J., Bestelmeyera, B., Fredricksona, E., Herricka, J. and Wrightd, J., 2007. Ecological services to and from rangelands of the United States. Ecological Economics, 64: 261-268.

Khosroshahi, M. and Ghavami, Sh., 2005. Warning: natural resources are life bed, strive to maintain them. Organization of Forest, rangelands and watershed of Iran. Tehran, Forth edition. (In Persian).

MacLeod, N. D. and Brown, J. R., 2014. Valuing and Rewarding Ecosystem Services from Rangelands. Rangelands. 36: 12–19.

Maczko, K., Tanaka, J. A., Breckenridge, R., Hidinger, L., Heintz, H. T., Fox, W. E., Kreuter, U. P., Duke, C. S., Mitchell, J. E. and McCollum, D. W., 2011. Rangeland ecosystem goods and services: values and evaluation of opportunities for ranchers and land managers, Rangelands, 33: 30-36.

Mesdaghi, M., 2003. Rangeland management in Iran. Astan Ghods Razavi Press. Mashhad. (In Persian).

Reed, M. S., Stringer, L. C., Dougill, A. J., Perkins, J. S., Atlhopheng, J. R., Mulale, K. and Favretto, N., 2015. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: Linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems. Jour. Environmental Management, 151: 472-485.

Reed, M. S., 2008. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: A literature review. Biological Conservation, 141: 2417–2431.

Shokri, M., Bahmanyar, M. A. and Tatian, M. R., 2003. An ecological investigation of vegetation cover in Estival rangelands of Hezarjarib (Behshahr). Iranian Jour. Natural Resources, 56(1): 131-141.

Squires, V. R. and Sidahmed, A., 1997. Livestock management in dry land pastoral systems: prospects and problems. Annals of Arid Zone. 36(2): 79–96.

Steurer, R., Langer, M. E., Konrad, A. and Martinuzzi, A., 2005. Corporations, Stakeholders and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business–Society Relations. Jour. Business Ethics, 61: 263–281.

Torell, L., Torell, G. L. and Skaggs, R. K., 2014. Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Economic Assessments of Restoration Projects. Rangelands, 36(2): 45-51.