Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymers (SAPs) Plus Manure Treatments on Vegetation Cover and Soil Nutrients of Festuca ovina under Drought Stress

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article

Authors

1 Natural Resource Faculty, Urmia University, Iran

2 Natural Resource Faculty, Urmia University

Abstract

Knowledge of physiological and environmental factors is important for forage
grass production. Festuca ovina is a grass species adapted to Azerbaijan region climate,
Iran. This species is a valuable source for forage production and soil conservation.
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) are three most important plant nutrients.
The aims of present study were to investigate the effects of super absorbance polymer and
cattle manure on vegetation growth and soil NPK element of Festuca ovina under drought
stress. A split-plot design was used with drought stress as the main plot (control, -0.3 and
-0.9 Mp) and polymer +fertilizer as the sub factor (T1: control, T2: 50 g manure, T3: 5 g
polymer, T4: 5 g polymer + 50g manure, T5: 10 g polymer, and T6: 10 g polymer + 50g
manure) in five replications. N, P and K contents of soil samples were determined before
and after the experiment using Kjeldal, P-Olsen and flame photometer methods. The data
of NPK and two cuts of vegetation covers were collected and analyzed using SAS
software. The results showed that the application of polymer and manure had positive
effects on all the traits. Higher values of vegetation covers were observed in T4 and T6
treatments where both polymer and manure were applied. Higher values of NPK with the
average values of 0.69%, 21 ppm, and 395 ppm, respectively were observed in T6: (10 g
polymer + 50g manure) and the higher vegetation cover with the average values of 82%
and 46% were obtained in the first and second cuts, respectively at the same treatments.
Since there were no significant differences between T6 and T4, it was recommended to
apply 5g polymer coupled with 50g cattle manure in 4300 g of soil to improve grass
production in drought environment.

Keywords


Literature Cited

Abdelhamid, M. T., Horiuchi, T., Oba, S., 2004. Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties. Jour. Bioresource Technology, 93: 183-189.

Agaba, H., Orikiriza, L. J. B., Esegu, J. F. O., Obua, J., Kabasa, J.D., Huttermann, A., 2010. Effects of hydrogel amendment to different soils on plant available water and survival of trees under drought conditions. Jour. Clean Soil, Air, Water, 38(4): 328-335.

Ahmadian, A., 2008. Effect of irrigation frequency and fertilizer on yield and quality of Cumin. M.Sc. Thesis, Agricultural Faculty of Zabol University, Iran. (In Persian).

Alizadeh, A., 2011. Soil and plant water relations. Ferdowsi University Press, 617p. (In Persian).

Allah Dadi, A., Moazen Ghamsari, B., Akbari, G.H., Zohoorian Mehr, M., 2005. Investigation of the effect of different amount of water super absorbent polymer 200-A and irrigation levels on growth and yield of forage corn. Proceedings of 3rd specific symposium on application of super absorbent polymer hydro gels in agriculture, IRAN Petro chemistry and Polymer Research Center, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).

Bai, W., Zhang, H., Liu, B., Wu, Y., Song, J., 2010. Effects of super-absorbent polymers on the physical and chemical properties of soil following different wetting and drying cycles. Jour. Soil use and management, 26(3): 253-260.

Boltz, D. F. and Howell, J. A., 1978. Colorimetric Determination of Nonmetals. John Wily and sons, 2nd ed., Vol. 8, 304.

Bremner, J. M., Mulvaney, C. S., 1982. Nitrogen-Total. In A. L. Page, R. H. Miller (ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part2, 2nd ed., ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. 595-624.

Dorraji, S. S., Golchin, A., Ahmadi, S., 2010. The effects of hydrophilic polymer and soil salinity on corn growth in sandy and loamy soils. Jour. Clean Soil, Air, Water, 38(7): 584-591.

Eneji A. E., Honna, T., Yamamoto, S., Saito, T., Masuda, T., 2002. Nitrogen transformation in four Japanese soils following manure plus urea amendment. Jour. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33(1-2): 53-66.

Federico, A., 2007. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Jour. Bio resource Technology, 98: 2781-2786.

Gordon, H., Haygarth, P. M., Bardgett, R. D., 2007. Drying and wetting effects on soil microbial community composition and nutrient leaching. Jour. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40: 302-311.

Habibi, D., Rahmani, M., 2009. Effect of different concentrations of super absorbent polymer on performance and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Sinapis under drought conditions. Jour. environmental stress in plant science, 1(1): 23-28. (In Persian).

Jafari, M., Azarnivand, H., Souri, M., 2014. Determining suitable location for pitting and furrowing projects using SDSS. Iranian Jour. Range and Desert Research, 21(1): 95-108. (In Persian).

Khadem, S. A., Ramroudi, M., Galavi, M., Roosta, M. G., 2011. the effect of drought stress and different rates of animal manure with super absorbent polymer on grain yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L.). Jour. Crop Science, 42(1): 115-123. (In Persian).

Laboski, C. A. M., Lamb, J. A., 2003. Changes in soil test phosphorus concentration after application of manure or fertilizer. Soil Science Society American Journal, 67: 544-554.

Lakzian, A., Hallajnia, A, Rahmani, H., 2010. Effect of soil drying and wetting cycles on solvable organic Carbon, and organic mineral phosphorus and nitrogen. Jour. water and soil, 24(2): 234-243. (In Persian).

Liu, H. P., Yu, B. J., Zhang, W. H., Liu, Y. L., 2005. Effect of osmotic stress on the activity of Ht ATPase and the levels of covalently and nocovalently conjugated polyamines in plasma membrane preparation from wheat seedling roots. Jour. Plant Science, 168: 1599-1607.

Olsen, S. R., Sommers, L. E., 1982. Phosphorus. In: A. L., Page, R. H. Miller (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties. ASA Monograph, 9: 403–430.

Poorsmaeil, P., Habibi, D. and Mashhadi, M., 2006. Use of super absorbent polymer in

 

  increasing the performance and activities of antioxidant enzymes in Red Bean varieties under drought stress. M.Sc. Thesis, Agricultural Faculty, Azad University of Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)

Rajaei, F. and Raeisi, F., 2010. The role of super absorbent A200 on control of drought stress and its effect on nitrogen activity and enzyme activity in soil. Iranian Jour. water research, 7: 13-24. (In Persian).

Roushan, B., 2002. Investigation of effects of super absorbent polymer in increasing the quality and quantity of agricultural products. The second specialized training of farming and industrial applications of super absorbent Hydrogel, Polymer Research Institute of Iran (In Persian).

Saetre, P., Stark, J. M., 2005. Microbial dynamics and carbon and nitrogen cycling following wetting of soils beneath two semi-arid plant species. Oecologia Journal, 142: 247-260.

Salar, N. and Frahpoor, M., 2005. Study of hydrophilic polymer on irrigation intervals of cultivation in Cucumis melo L. The second specialized training of farming and industrial applications of super absorbent hydrogel, Polymer Research Institute of Iran Publication, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).

Saleem, M., 2003. Response of durum and bread wheat Genotypes to drought stress: Biomass and Yield components. Asian Journal plant Sci. 2(3): 210-213.

Sall, S. N., Chotte, J. L., 2002. Phosphates and urease activities in a tropical sandy soil as affected by soil water- holding capacity and assay conditions. Jour. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33(20): 3745-3755.

Sardans, J. and Peûuelas, J., 2005. Drought decreases soil enzyme activity in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex L. forest. Jour. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37(3): 455-461.

Talaie, A. and Asadzadeh, A., 2005. Effect of super absorbent on reducing the dryness of olive trees. Third specialized training of farming applications of super absorbent hydrogel, Polymer Research Institute of Iran. (In Persian).

Varavipoor, M., 2010. Basic Pedology. Payam Noor University Press, 320 p. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).

Xiang, S. R., Doyle, A., Holden, P. A., Schimel, J.P., 2008. Drying and wetting effects on C and N mineralization and microbial activity in surface and subsurface California grassland soils. Jour. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40: 2281-2289.

Yousefi, K., Galavi, M., Ramroudi, M., Javaheri, M. A., 2010. Investigation of Biological phosphate fertilizer -2 fertilized with foliar applications of micronutrient elements on dry matter accumulation and yield components of corn. 11th Iranian Crop Science Congress, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran. (In Persian).

Zarfsaz, N., 2013. Investigation of the effect of different amount of water super absorbent polymer on forest seedlings. M.Sc. Thesis, Natural Resource Faculty, Urmia University Press, pp: 89. (In Persian).

Zohuriaan-Mehr, M. J., Omidian, H., Doroudiani, S., Kabiri, K., 2010. Advances in non-hygienic applications of super absorbent hydrogel Materials. Jour. Material Science, 45: 5711-5735.