Dust Particles and Aerosols: Impact on Biota “A Review” (Part I)

Document Type: Review and Short Length Article

Author

Ecology and Resources Group, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou

Abstract

The impacts of Dust and Sand Storms (DSS) on people, crops, livestock, infrastructure and health are well documented. Data have accumulated on the deleterious effects of dust aerosols when they settle on plants. Sand blasting of low growing plants is a common cause of failure in reforestation efforts. Burial of plants by moving sands are also a cause of much damage. The physics of moving sand and dust particles is outlined and the mechanics of each type of damage is elaborated. The physical effects of dust accumulating on leaf surfaces, leaf physiology such as photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature of many different species of plants were investigated. It was found that dust decreases stomatal conductance in the light, and increased it in the dark by plugging the stomata, when the stomata were open during dusting. When dust of smaller particles was applied, the effect was greater. However, the effect was negligible when the stomata were closed during dusting. The dust decreased the photosynthetic rate by shading the leaf surface. The paper also reviews experimental work on the physiological effects of dust on photosynthesis, stomatal function, respiration and transpiration. Examples are drawn from western Iran where oak woodlands (Quercus brantii) are under threat from dust that blows in from Iraq and Syria.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Arslan, M. & Boybay, M., 1990. A study on the characterization of dust fall. Atmosph. Environ., 24A, 2667-71.

Bastan, M., Abdollahi, F., Shokoufi, K., 2013. Analysis of Iran’s dust emission with system dynamics methodology Technical Jour. Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2013-3-24: 3515-3524.

Chaturvedi, RK., Prasad, S., Rana, S., Obaidullah, SM., Pandey,V. and Singh, H., 2013. Effect of dust load on the leaf attributes of the tree species growing along the roadside. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185 (1): 383-391.

Davison, A. W. and Blakemore, J., 1976. Effects of air pollution on plants. pp. 209-10 In: T.A. Mansfield (Ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Eldridge, D. J., 1993. Cryptogams cover and soil surface condition effects on hydrology on a semi-arid woodland soil. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation. 7:203-217.

Farmer, AM.,1993. The effects of dust on vegetation-a review. Environ Pollut.79(1): 63-75.

Fluckiger, W., 1979. The relationship between stomatal diffusive resistance and various applied particle sizes on leaf surfaces. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 91:173-5.

Garty, J., Delarea, J., 1987. Some initial stages in the formation of epilithic crustose lichens in nature: a SEM study. Symbiosis 3:49-56.

Greig, J. K., Bokhari, N., Armbrust, D. V. and Anderson, L. C., 1974. Residual effects of wind and sandblast-damage on tomato plants at different stages of development. Jour. Am Soc. Hort. Sci. 99: 530- 534.

Heshmati, G. A., 2014. Successful Biological methods for combating desertification on degraded areas of China. pp. Xx In: G.A., Heshmati and V. Squires (eds.). Combating Desertification in Asia, Africa and the Middle East: Proven Practices. Springer, Dordrecht.

Krajickova & Mejstrik. 1984. The effect of fly ash particles on the plugging of stomata. Envir. Poll. 36:83-93.

McTainsh, G. and Strong, C., 2007. The role of Aeolian dust in ecosystems. Geomorphology 89: 39-54.

Okin, Gerigory S., 2008. A new model of wind erosion in the presence of vegetation. Jour. Geophysical Research. Volume 113: Issue F02810, pp:1-11. DOI: 10.1029/2007JF000758

Olorvsky, N., and Olorvsky, L., 2000.White Sandstorms in Central Asia pp. 169-201 In; Yang Youlin, Victor Squires and Lu Qi (eds). Global Alarm: Dust and Sand Storms from the World’s Drylands  UN, Beijing.

Parish, S.B., 1910. The effect of cement dust on citrus trees. Plant World 13(12): 288-291.

Pyatt, F, B., 1973. Some aspects of plant contamination by particulate pollutants. Int. Jour. Environ. Studies 5: 215-220.

Sagheb-Talebi, K. H., Sajedi, T. and Yazdian, F., 2004. Forests of Iran. Iran Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR) Press, No: 1380–339, Tehran, PP. 27.

Squires, v. R., 2000. Dust and Sandstorms: an Early Warning of Impending Disaster pp.15-24 In; Springer.

Squires, V. R., 2001. Physics, Mechanics and Processes of Dust and Sandstorms pp. xx In: Yang Youlin, Victor Squires and Lu Qi (eds). Global Alarm: Dust and Sand Storms from the World’s Drylands UN, Beijing.

Thompson, J. R., Mueller, P. W., Fluckiger, W. and Rutter, A. J., 1984. The effect of dust on photosynthesis and its significance for roadside plants. Environmental Pollution (Series A) 34:171-190.

Van Jaarsveld, F., 2008. Characterising and mapping of wind transported sediment associated with open cast gypsum mining Master of Science Thesis, University of Stellenbosch 125 p. Stellenbosch, South Africa

Vardaka, E., Cook, C. M.,  Lanaras, T., Sgardelis, S. P. and Pantis, J. D., 1995. Effect of dust from a limestone quarry on the photosynthesis of Quercus coccifera, an evergreen Schlerophyllous shrub. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54(3): 414-419.

Walker, D.A., and Everett,  K. R., 1987. Road dust and its environmental impact on Alaskan taiga and tundra. Arctic and Alpine Research, 19: 479-489.

Yang, Y., Squires, V. R. and Lu, Qi (eds), 2000. Global Alarm: Dust and Sand Storms from the World’s Drylands UN, Beijing.