Investigating the Germination Characteristics of Poterium sanguisorba Seeds under the Influence of Thermal Treatments for Pasture Establishment

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Student of Rangeland Sciences, Faculty of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Researcher of Arid Environments Research Institute, Iran

2 Faculty of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran

3 Student of Combat Desertification, Faculty of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (Academic Member of Desert Studies Faculty, Semnan University), Iran

4 Student of Rangeland Sciences, Faculty of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran


Common burnet (Poterium sanguisorba) is a perennial herb from rose family (Rosaceae) which is used to construct pastures. The studied plant can resist against freezing, cool and drought. The present study was conducted to study the seed germination parameters of common burnet in different thermal treatments as completely randomized design in 4 replications in 2013. Treatments involved the effects of constant temperature including 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 35 and 45°C on germination parameters of 25 seeds which were used at each replication. The results showed that the effects of different thermal treatments on seed germination of common burnet were significant so that the lowest germination speeds at 5 and 10°C were 0 and 2.78 seeds a day and the highest germination speeds at 35 and 30°C were 8.95 and 7.77 seeds a day, respectively. The longest plume lengths were observed at temperatures of 10 (4.94 cm) and 15 °C (4.47 cm) and the shortest plume lengths were 35 and 45° (1.28 and 0 cm, respectively). The longest radicle lengths also were observed at 10 (5.13 cm) and 15 °C (5.05 cm) and the shortest ones occurred at 35 and 45 °C (0.88 and 0 cm, respectively). According to the fitted regression models between germination speed and temperature, minimum, optimum and maximum values of temperature were obtained at the ranges of 3.38-6.65, 26.82-34.5 and 45-46.78°C, respectively. According to the seed germination of studied plant at maximum and minimum temperatures, it can be used in constructing the pastures in arid and semi-arid areas.


Main Subjects

Adam, N. R., Dierig, D. A., Coffelt, T. A. and Wintermeyer, M. J., 2007. Cardinal temperatures for germination and early growth of two Lesquerella species. Jour. Industrial Crops and Products, 25: 24-33.
Al-Ahmadi, M. J. and Kafi, M., 2007. Cardinal temperatures for germination of Kochia scoparia (L.). Jour. Arid Environment, 68: 308-314.
Ale Ebrahim, M. T., Rashed Mohassel, M. H., Mighani, F. and Baghestani, M.G., 2009. Evaluation of different methods of breaking seed dormancy and optimal temperature of Elymus repens. Jour. Crop Protection, 24(4): 391-397.
Alvarado, V. and Bradford, K. J., 2002. A hydrothermal time model explains the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Jour. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25: 1061-1069.
Alvardo, V., 2000. Hydrothermal time model of botanical potato seed germination. M.Sc. Thesis. University of California, Davis, 71pp.
Bannayan, M., Nadjafi, F., Rastgoo, M. and Tabrizi, L., 2006. Germination properties of some wild medicinal plants from Iran. Jour. Seed Technology, 28: 80-86.
Bradford, K. J., 2002. Application of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Jour. Weed Science, 50: 248-260.
Copeland, L. O. and McDonald, M. B., 1995. Principles of seed science and technology, Pub, Chapman & Hall USA.
Derakhshan, A., Gherekhloo, J. and Paravar, E., 2013. Estimation of cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirement for Cyperus difformis Seed Germination. Jour. Weed Sciences, 9: 27- 39.
Eberle, C. A., Forcella, F., Gesch, R., Peterson, D. and Eklund, J., 2014. Seed germination of calendula response to temperature. Jour. Industrial Crops and Products, 52: 199- 204.
Fisher, A. G., rick, M. A., Riley, R. H. and Christensen, D.K., 1987. Dryland stand establishment and seed production of revegetation species. Jour. Crop Science, 27(6): 1303- 1305.
Ghaderi, A., Soltani, A. and Sadeghipour, H. R., 2008. Temperature effects and water potential on germination of Cucurbita pepo, Nigella sativa and Borago officinalis. Jour. Agriculture Natural Resources, 15(5): 39- 50.
Gibertson, P. K., Berti, M. T. and Johnson, B. L., 2014. Borage cardinal germination temperatures and seed development. Jour. Industrial Crops and Products, 59: 202-209.
Hardegree, S., 2006. Predicting germination response to temperature I. Cardinal temperature models and subpopulation-specific regression. Jour. Annals of Botany, 97: 1115-1125.
Hickman, J. C., 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.
Jami Al-Ahmadi, M. and Kafi, M., 2007. Cardinal temperatures for germination of Kochia scoparia (L). Jour. Arid Environments, 68: 308-314.
Jordan, Gilbert L. and Marshall R. Haferkamp, 1989. Temperature Responses and Calculated Heat Units for Germination of Several Range Grasses and Shrubs. Jour. Range Management, 42(1):41.
Kaldy, J. E., Shafer, D. J., Alistock, M. S. and Magoun, A. D., 2015. Effects of temperature, salinity and seed age on induction of Zostera japonica germination in North America, USA. Jour. Aquatic Botany, 126: 73- 79.
Kamkar, B., Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., Mahdavi-Damghani, A. and Villalobos, F. J., 2012. Quantification of the cardinal temperature and thermal time requirement of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds to germinate using non-linear regression models. Jour. Industrial Crops and Products, 35 (1): 192- 198.
Kauth, Ph. J. and Biber, P. D., 2015. Moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity influence seed storage and subsequent survival and germination of Vallisneria americana seeds. Jour. Aquatic Botany, 120: 297- 303.
Khaleghi, E., Moallemi, N., 2009. Effect of different levels of salinity and temperature on seed germination of Cocks Comb (Celosia argentea). Jour. Plant Production, 16(1): 12-21 (In Persian).
Krichen, K., Ben Mariem, H. and Chaieb, M., 2014. Ecophysiological requirements on seed germination of a Mediterranean perennial grass (Stipa tenacissima L.) under controlled temperatures and water stress. South African Journal of Botany, 94: 210- 217.
Leon, R. G. and Knapp., A. D., 2004. Effect of temperature on the germination of Amaranthus tuberculatus, giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Jour. Weed Science, 52: 67-73.
Maguire, J. D., 1962. Speed of germination-aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Jour. Crop Science, 2 (1): 176- 177.
Mahmodi, E.R., Soltani, A. and Barani, H., 2007. Medicago scutellata L. Response to temperature. Jour. Agric Plants Electronic, 1: 54-63 (In Persian).
Mwale, S. S., Azam-Ali, S. N., Clark, J., Bradley R. G. and Chatha, M. R., 1994. Effect of temperature on the germination of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Jour. Seed Science and Technology, 22: 565-571.
Naaghd Abadi, H., Dastpak, A. and Ziai, S.A., 2002. Review for plantago and psyllium. Jour. Medicinal Plants Quarterly, 9: 1-13 (In Persian).
Nelson, R. L., 2013. Small Burnet (Sanguisorba minor Scop.) Response to Herbicides Applied Post emergence, Master of Science, Utah State University.
Nykiforuk, C. L. and Johnson-Flanagan, A. M., 1994. Germination and early seedling development under low temperature in canola. Jour. Crop Science, 34: 1047-1054.
Ogle, D. G., 2002. Small burnet-Sanguisorba minor Scop. In: Plant fact sheet. Washington, DC: U.S.D.A, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer).
Ordonez-Salanueva, C. A., Seal, Ch. E., Pritchard, H.W., Orozco-Segovia, A., Canales-Martinez, M. and Flores-Ortiz, C. M., 2015. Cardinal temperature and thermal time in Polaskia backeb (Cactaceae) species: Effect of projected soil temperature increase and nurse interaction on germination timing. Jour. Arid Environments, 115: 73- 80.
Pahlavani, A. H., Rashedmohassel, M. H., Mighani, F., Baghestani, M. E., Nasiri Mahallati, M. and Ale Ebrahim, M.T., 2008. Assessment of Cynanchum acutum seed germination behavior. Jour. Iranian agricultural researches, 1. 47- 52 (In Persian).
Parmoon, Gh., Moosavi, S. A., Akbari, H. and Ebadi, A., 2015. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed. The Crop Jour., 3: 145- 151 (In Persian).
Phartyal, S.S., Thapial, R.C., Nayal, J.S., Rawat, M.M.S. and Joshi, G., 2003. The influence of temperatures on seed germination rate in Himalaya elm (Ulmus wallichiana). Jour. Seed Science and Technology, 25: 419-426.
Pourtosi, N., Rashed Mohassel, M. H. and Izadi Darbandi, A., 2008. Determination of cardinal temperature of Portulaca oleracea L., Chenopodium album and Digitaria sanguinalis seed germination. Jour. Iranian Agricultural Researches., 2; 255-261 (In Persian).
Rasoli, C.R. and Shabani Tabari, H., 1996. Comparison forage production Poterium sanguisorba in rainfed condition in Pikale Ghamroz. Natural resources researches institute and Mazandaran animal affairs. (In Persian).
Rezaei, M. A., 2002. Study of germination characteristics, base temperature (Tb) and genotypic evolution of Melilotus alba, collected from three area of Iran. Jour. agricultural sciences, Islamic Azad University, 12(1): 191-189 (In Persian).
Seefeldt, S. S., Kidwell, K. K. and Waller, J. E., 2002. Base growth temperatures, germination rates and growth response of contemporary spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars from the US Pacific 26- Northwest. Jour. Field Crops Res., 75: 47-52.
Sincik, M., BilGili, U., Uzun, A. and Acikgoz, E., 2004. Effect of low temperature on the germination of different field pea genotypes. Jour. Seed Science and Technol., 22: 331-339.
Tabrizi, L., Kochaki, E., Mahallati, M. and Rezvani Moghaddam, P., 2006. Assessment of two natural and agric community of Thymus transcaspicus Klokov by Regression models. Jour. Iranian Agricultural Researches., 2: 249-257 (In Persian).
Xue, J. G., Wang, X. G., Du, X. G., Mao, P. Sh., Zhang, T.J., Zaho, L. and Han, J.G., 2012. Influence of salinity and temperature on germination Haloxylon ammodendron and Ceratoides arborescens. Jour. Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11(9): 1306-1311.
Welch B. L., 2004. Nutritive principles in restoration and management. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard; Shaw, Nancy L., comps. Restoring western ranges and wild lands, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-136-vol. 1, Fort Collins, CO: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 175- 186.
Wise, A. N. and Binning, L. K., 1987. Calculating the threshold Temperature of Development for Weeds. Jour. Weed Science, 35: 177-179.
Yin, X., 1996. Quantifying the effects of temperature and photoperiod on phonological development to flowering in rice. Ph.D. thesis Wageningen, Agricultural University, the Netherland, 173 pp.
Zafaranieh, M., 2014. Evaluation of Base, Optimum and Ceiling Temperature for (Amaranthus retroflexus) with Application of Five-Parameters-Beta Model. International, Jour. Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 3: 11-16.
Zhou, J., Deckard, E. L. and Ahrens, W. H., 2005. Factors affecting germination of hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) seeds. Jour. Weed Science, 53: 41-45.
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
January 2016
Pages 53-62
  • Receive Date: 02 July 2015
  • Revise Date: 30 November 2015
  • Accept Date: 06 December 2015
  • First Publish Date: 01 January 2016