Common Reed (Phragmites australis) as a Bio Refining and Monitoring Plant of Pollution Resulting from Heavy Metals (Case Study: Dez River, Dezful, Iran)

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environment, Malayer University, P.O. Box 65719-9581863, Malayer, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of rengeland science, faculty of Natural Resource and Environment, Malayer University, P.O. Box 65719-9581863, Malayer, Hamedan, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Sciences, PhD Condidate of Natural Resource and Environment, Malayer University, P.O. Box 65719-9581863, Malayer, Hamedan, Iran


One of the most important methods to investigate heavy metals as pollutants is more likely to use bio-monitors which can be applied as an appropriate index to express the quality of environment. In current study, in order to investigate the effects of dominant plants in the desired region and role of aquatic macrophytes in monitoring such elements as zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in underground organs, leaves and stems of a specific aquatic macrophyte named Phragmites australis as well as sediment samples of Dez River, Iran in 2012 were studied. Given samples were prepared with the ratio of 4 to 1 nitric acid to perchloric acid and the concentrations of elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. In this study, Enrichment Factor (EF), Bio-accumulation Index and Translocation Factor (TF) were measured. Results indicated that the concentration of metals was reduced in the underground organs, leaves and stem, respectively (stem<leaves<underground organs). Also, there was a positive correlation between the concentration of Pb in the sediments and roots (P<0.05); thus, it was expected that the roots of Phragmites australis may be of suitable monitoring for pollution resulting from Pb in the regional sediments of Dez Watershed. Enrichment Factor showed that because of anthropological resources, stations of two, three and five were more polluted. In addition, the underground organs of Phragmites australis were introduced as the accumulator of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Bio-accumulation Index. Translocation Factor was increased from the underground organs to aerial organs for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, respectively.


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Volume 6, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
January 2016
Pages 10-23
  • Receive Date: 23 September 2015
  • Revise Date: 04 November 2015
  • Accept Date: 13 November 2015
  • First Publish Date: 01 January 2016