Effects of Seed Source and Soil Texture on Germination and Survival of Nepeta asterotricha as a Medicinal Plant

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Yazduni

2 Yazduniversity

3 yazduniversity


Nepeta species are widely used as medicine plants because of their anti-spasmodic, diuretic, anti-septic, anti asthmatic anti spasmodic, and tonic effects. Nepeta species also have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities. Germination and seedling growth are two important stages of the plant development and plant survival. Soil texture is one of the environmental factors, which affects the germination mechanism. In order to evaluate the effects of seed source and soil texture on the germination of N. asterotricha as a medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized block design with four replications in 2014. The studied factors included different sources of seed collection (Sanij, Dehbala, Dareshir, Tezerjan) and three types of soil texture (Sand, Sandy loam and Silty clay). Results indicated that N. asterotricha germination was affected by the origin of seed source (altitude, direction, and slope). Seeds collected from Sanij and Tezerjan had the highest and lowest germination percent, respectively. Among different soil textures, soils with sand and sandy loam texture had the best performance. Results showed significant effects of seed sources and soil texture interaction affects the seed germination percent and germination rate (p≤0.01). Seed sources had different responses to soil textures indicating that seed collected from different areas may be compatible with specific soil texture. In general, the light soil textures had better effects on seed germination traits of N. asterotricha.


Main Subjects

AFNOR, 1987. Recueil de normes francaises, qualite des sols, methodesd’analyses, edit. Association francaise de normalisation (Afnor). 19–30.
Agrwal, R.L., 2003. Seed technology. Pub. CO. PVT. LTD. New Delhi, India. P: 550.
Agrwal, R. L., 2005. Seed technology. Oxford and IBH Publishing. CO. P: 829.
Asgari, M., Nasiri, M., Jafari, A. and Flah Hoseini, L., 2015. Investigation of chilling effects on characteristics of seed germination, vigor and seedling growth of Nepeta spp. Species, Jour. Rangeland Science, 4: 313-324.
AsgarpanahPanah, J., Sarabian, S. and Ziarati, P., 2013. Essential oil of Nepeta genus (Lamiaceae) from Iran: a review, Jour. Essential Oil Research. 10: 851040.
Baghestani Maybodi, N., Zandi Esfahan, E. and Zare, M. T., 2015. Effects of Pruning on Haloxylon aphyllum L. Dimensions and its Application in Biological Reclamation of Desert Regions in Yazd Province. Jour. Rangeland Science, 2: 153 – 162.
Gulshan, A. B. and Dasti, A. A., 2012. Role of soil texture and depths on the emergence of buried weed seeds, ARPN Jour. Agricultural and Biological Science, 7: 4-12.
Cecil, P. and Fare, D., 2002. Effects of seed source on first year growth of Quercus phellos and Quercus shumardii, SNA Research Conference Proceedings. 47: 295-299.
Darier, S. M., Abdelaziz, H. A. and Zein El-Dien, M. H., 2014. Effect of soil type on the allelotoxic activity of Medicago sativa L. residues in Vicia faba L. agro ecosystems. Jour. Taibah University for Science, 8: 84–89.
Dashtakian, K. and Abolghasemi, M., 2003. Determination of the geographical domain of Yazd province desert. Final Report of Research Plain, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Yazd, Iran, p:221. (In Persian).
Devagiri, G. M., Dhiman, R. C., Kumar, P. N. and Patial, C. S., 2007. Seed source variation in seedling and nodulation characters in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Silvae Genetica, 56: 88-91.
Dinesh, S. B., Rajendra, P. C., Singh, L., Pande, V., Lal, P. and Mathela, C. S., 2010. Constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of six Himalayan Nepeta species, Jour. Serb Chem Soc. 75: 739-747.
Ebrahimi, M., 2012. Germination, Growth and Uptake of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils (Hordeum bulbosum L.). Jour. Rangeland Science, 3: 557-565.
Formisano, D., Rigano Senatore, F., 2011. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Nepeta species. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 8: 1783–1818.
Ginwal, H.S., Phartyal, S.S., Rawat, P.S. and Srivastava, R.L., 2005. Srivastava, Seed source variation in morphology, Germination and seedling growth of Jatropha Curcas Linn, In Central India. Silvae Genetica, 54: 76-80.
Hampton, G.C. and Tekrony, D.M., 1995. Handbook of vigor test methods. 3rd edition, International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Switzerland, p: 117
Haghighi, M. and Mozafarian, M., 2011. The introduction of extinct endemic vegetables of Iran. Jour. Medicinal Plants Research, 5(33): 7085-7107.
Isik, K. 1986. Altitudinal variation in Pinus brutia ten, seed and seedling characteristics. Silvae Genetica. 35: 2-3.
Mamo, N., Mihretu, M., Fekadu, M., Tibagu, M. and Teketay, D., 2006. Variation in seed and germination characteristics among Juniperus procera populations in Ethiopia, Jour. Forest Ecology & Management. 22: 320-327.
Micelia, N., Taviano, N. F., Giuffrida, D., Trovato, A., Tzakou, O. and Galati, E.M., 2005. Anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham. Jour. Ethnopharmacol, 97: 261-266.
Mohajeri, M. R., Ghamari Zare, A., Naderi Shahab, M. A. and Kalateh Jari, S., 2014. Seed Germination of Lilium ledebourii (Baker) Boiss. After Cryopreservation. Jour. Rangeland Science, 4: 279 - 286
Nadjafi, F., Koocheki, A., Honermeier, B. and Asili, J., 2009. Autecology, Ethnomedicinal and Phytochemical Studies of Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad a Highly Endangered Medicinal Plant of Iran. Jour. Essential Oil-bearing Plants, 12: 97 – 110.
Ofelia Andrea, V. R., Odilon, S.S. and Arturo, P.V., 2013. Effects of soil texture on germination and survival of non-toxic Jatropha curcas seeds, Biomass and Bioenergy. 48: 167-170.
Oziegbe, M., Faluyi, J. O. and Oluwaranti, A., 2010. Effect of seed age and soil texture on the germination of some Ludwigia species (Onagraceae) in Nigeria. Acta. Bot. Croat. 62: 249–257.
Pahla, T., Muziri, T., Chinyise, S. and Muzemu, J., 2014. Effects of Soil Type and Different Pre-sowing Treatments on Seedling Emergence and Vigor of Acacia sieberana, Jour. Plant Research. 4: 51-55.‏
Pardure, I., 2004. Chorological and Ecological Aspects of Nepeta Nuda L. Ssp. Nuda (Syn. N. Pannonica L.) From Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae in Romania Scientific Annals of AlexandrIan University of Iasi. New Series, Section 2. Vegetal Biology. 50: 64-50.
Singh, B., Bhatt, B.P. and Prasad, P., 2004. Effect of seed source and temperature on seed germination of Celtis australis L, a Promising Agroforestry Tree-Crop of Central Himmalaya, India. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. 14: 53-60.
Soltani, M. and V. Maddah, 2010. Applied Programs for education and research in Agronomy. Publications Association of ecological agriculture in Iran. P: 80. (In Persian).
Vashisth, A. and Nagarajan, S. 2010. Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds exposed to static magnetic field. Jour. Plant Physiology. 167: 149-156.
Tabari, M., Yosef-zadeh, H. and jalali. A., 2006. Influence of source variation on early growth and biomass of Acer velutinum Boiss in north of Iran, Jour. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi. 73: 189-194. (In Persian).
Throneberry, G.O. and Smith, F.G., 1955. Relation of respiratory enzymatic activity to corn seed viability. Plant physiol. 30: 337-343.
Todaria, N.P. and Negi, A.K., 1995. Effect of elevation and temperature on seed germination of some Himalayan tree species, Jour. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry. 22: 178–182.
Walkley, A. and Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of wet digestion method for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method, Jour. Soil Science. 37: 29-38.