Investigation of Environmental Factors Regarding the Essential Oil and Antibacterial Activity of Lavandin (Case Study: Jowkar, Khoramabad, Alashtar and Aligoodarz from Iran)

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article


Young Researchers and Elite Club, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.


Plants produce thousands of primary and secondary metabolites including volatile compounds at various developmental stages throughout their life cycle during flowering, ripening, and maturation. Lavandin known for its volatile compounds is a small aromatic shrub cultivated worldwide for the essential oil. Lavandin essential oil composition is greatly influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of the plant are widely used to enhance the flavor of foods as well as cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In order to study the environmental factors regarding the essential oil and antibacterial activity of Lavandin, four populations were collected (Jowkar, Khoramabad, Alashtar and Aligoodarz) in Lorestan province, Iran in May 2014. The hydro-distillated essential oil was analyzed using GC and GC/MS. Results indicated that there were significant differences among the various populations for the main constituents in the essential oils. Analyses revealed 32 compounds constituting 91.63–97.2% of the essential oils. The main constituents were 1, 8-cineole (44.8 to 31.64%), borneol (26.14 to 18.47%), and camphor (14 to 8.41%). According to the results, there was a significant correlation between borneol and altitude (r=−0.95). Antibacterial data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The essential oils of Lavandin indicated good inhibitory activities against four bacteria, especially against Salmonella typhi with the inhibition zones of 19−23 mm. It was concluded that there was a high variation for the essential oil composition among the populations of Lavandin. In addition, the essential oil of Lavandula × intermedia has a good potential source of natural products for being used in food industry.


Main Subjects

Adams, R. P., 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ quadrupole mass spectroscopy. Allured: Carol Stream, IL, USA.

Akbarlou, M. and Nodehi, N., 2016. Relationship between some environmental factors with distribution of medicinal plants in Ghorkhud protected region, Northern Khorasan province, Iran. Jour. Range. Sci. 6(1): 63–72.

Bajalan, I. and Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., 2014. Variation in antibacterial activity and chemical compositions of essential oil from different populations of myrtle. Indust. Crop. Prod. 61(1): 303–307.

Bassole, I. H. N. and Juliani, H. R., 2012. Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties. Molecules. 17(17): 3989–4006.

Cavanagh, H. M. and Wilkinson, J. M., 2002. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytotherapy Research. 16(4): 301–308.

Djenane, D., Yanguela, J., Montanes, L., Djerbal, M. and Roncales, P., 2011. Antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus and Satureja montana essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes CECT 935 using laboratory media: Efficacy and synergistic potential in minced beef. Food Control. 22(7): 1046–1053.

Dorman, H. J. and Deans, S. G., 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Jour. Appl. Microbiol. 88(2): 308–816.

Ellis, B. D. and MacDonald, C. L., 2006. Phosphorus (I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds. Inorganic Chemistry. 45(17): 6864–6874.

Farina, L., Boido, E., Carrau, F., Versini, G. and Dellacassa, E., 2005. Terpene compounds as possible precursors of 1,8-cineole in red grapes and wines. Jour. Agric. Food Chem. 53(5): 1633-1636.

Gill, A. O., Delaquis, P., Russo, P. and Holley, R. A., 2002. Evaluation of antilisterial action of cilantro oil on vacuum packed ham. Int. Jour. Food Microbiol. 73(1): 83–92.

Gutierrez, J., Barry-Ryan, C. and Bourke, P., 2008. The antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oil combinations and interactions with food ingredients. Int. Jour. Food Microbiol. 124(1): 91–97.

Haig, T. J., Seal, A. N. and Pratley, J. E., 2009. Lavender as a source of novel plant compounds for the development of a natural herbicide. Jour. Chem. Ecol. 35:1129–1136.

Hanamanthagouda, M. S., Kakkalameli, S. B., Naik, P. M., Nagella, P., Seetharamareddy, H. R. and Murthy, H. N., 2010. Essential oils of Lavandula bipinnata and their antimicrobial activities. Food Chem. 118: 836–839.

Herraiz-Penalver, D., Cases, M.A., Varela, F., Navarrete, P., Sánchez-Vioque, R. and Usano-Alemany, J., 2013. Chemical characterization of Lavandula latifolia Medik essential oil from Spanish wild populations. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology, 46(1): 59–68.

Kim, N. S. and Lee, D. S., 2002. Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of fragrances from Lavandula species by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Jour. Chromatogr. 982(1): 31–47.

Kjeldahl, J., 1883. New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic substances. Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 22 (1): 366–383.

Konrad, M., 1997. Agronomic measures for better utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphates. Eur. Jour. Agron. 7(1): 221–233.

Kotan, R., Kordali S. and Cakir, A., 2007. Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes. Z. Naturforsch. 62(7): 507–513.

Lane, A., Boecklemann, A., Woronuk, G. N., Sarker, L. and Mahmoud, S. S., 2010. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia. Planta. 231(3): 835–45.

Lis-Balchin, M., 2002. Lavender: the genus lavandula, Taylor & Francis, London, New York, 256pp.

Mahboubi, M. and Kazempour, N., 2009. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Perovskia Abrotanoides karel and its main components. Ind. Jour. Pharm. Sci. 71(3): 343-347.

Messaoud, C., Béjaoui, A. and Boussaid, M., 2011. Fruit color, chemical and genetic diversity and structure of Myrtus communis L. var. italica Mill. Morph populations. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39: 570–580.

Mimica-Dukic, N., Bugarin, D., Grbovic, S., Mitic-Culafic, D., Vukovic-Gacic, B., Orcic,D., Jovin, E. and Couladis, M., 2010. Essential oil of Myrtus communis L. as a potential antioxidant and antimutagenic agents. Molecules. 15(4): 2759–2770.

Mohammadi, L. M. and Azar, S. M., 2012. Gathering, identification, medicinal utilization and domestication of some wild edible plants in Ghasemloo valley, West Azerbaijan, Iran. Jour. Range. Sci. 2(2): 521–534.

Morris, N., 2002. The effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolium) baths on psycho-logical well-being: two exploratory randomised control trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 10(4): 223–228.

Mourey, A. and Canillac, N., 2002. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity of essential oils components of conifers. Food Control. 13(5): 289–292.

NCCLS., 2002. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In: Twelfth International Supplement, M100-S12. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA.

Ozturk, M., Duru, M. E., Aydogmuş-Ozturk, F., Harmandar, M., Mahlicli, M., Kolak, U. and Ulubelen, A., 2009. GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Stachys cretica subsp. smyrnaea. Nat. Prod. Commun, 5(4): 109–114.

Quesada, C. A., Lioyd, J., Schwarz, M., Patino, S., Baker, T.R. and Czimczik, C., 2010. Variations in chemical and physical properties of Amazon forest soils in relation to their genesis. Biogeosciences. 7: 1515–1541.

Rabiei, Z., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., Mokhtari, S., Alibabaei, Z. and Shahrani, M., 2014. The effect of pretreatment with different doses of Lavandula officinalis ethanolic extract on memory, learning and nociception. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology. 4(1): 71–76.

Rahimmalek, M., Mirzakhani, M., Ghasemi, P. A., 2013. Essential oil variation among 21 wild myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) populations collected from different geo-graphical regions in Iran. Indian Crop Prod. 51: 328–333.

Rathcke, B. and Lacey. E. P., 1985. Phenological patterns of terrestrial plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16(1): 179–214.

Sachetti, G., Maietti, S., Muzzoli, M., Scaglianti, M., Manfredini, S., Radice, M. and Bruni, R., 2005. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional ntioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chem. 91(4): 621–632.

Sakamoto, R., Minoura, K., Usui, A., Ishizuka, Y. and Kanba, S., 2005. Effectiveness of aroma on work efficiency: Lavender aroma during recesses prevents deterioration of work performance. Chem Senses. 30(8): 683–691.

Shukla, P. K., Haseeb, A. and Srivastava, N. K., 1998. Influence of pH on reproduction and damage potential of Pratylenchus thornei on Mentha x piperita. Fundam. Appl. Nematol. 21(1): 103–105.

Sokovic, M., Marin, P. D., Brkic, D. and Griensven, V. L. J., 2007. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of ten aromatic plants against human pathogenic bacteria. Food. 1(3): 220–226.

Stanojevic, L., Stankovic, M., Cakic, M., Nikolic, V., Nikolic, L., Ilic, D. and Radulovic, N., 2011. The effect of hydrodistillation techniques on yield, kinetics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. Hem. Ind. 65(4): 455–463.

Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E., 1998. Plant Physiology. 2nd ed. University of California. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, Massachusetts, 792 pp.

Teixeira, B., Marques, A., Ramos, C., Neng, N. R., Nogueira, J. M. F., Saraiva, J. A. and Nunes, M. L., 2013. Chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant properties of commercial essential oils. Industrial Crops and Products. 43(1): 587-595.

Torras-Claveria, L., Jauregui, O., Bastida, J., Condina, C. and Viladomat, F., 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric exLoiseleur) waste. Jour. Agric. Food Chem. 55(21): 8436–8443.

Toupchi. Z. H., 2011. Identification of medicinal plants in Arshadchamani rangelands of east Azarbaijan. Jour. Range. Sci. 1(2): 103–110.

Upson, T., and Andrews, S., 2004. The genus lavandula, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.

Zheljazkov, V. D., Astatkie T. and Hristov, A. N., 2012. Lavender and hyssop productivity, oil content, and bioactivity as a function of harvest time and drying. Industrial Crops and Products. 36(1): 222–228.

Zuzarte, M. R., Dinis, A. M., Cavaleiro, C., Salgueiro, L. R. and Canhoto, J. M., 2010. Trichomes, essential oils and in vitro propagation of Lavandula pedunculata (Lamiaceae). Industrial Crops and Products. 32: 580–58.