Ajami, M., 2007. Soil quality attributes micropedology and clay mineralogy as affected by land use change and geomorphic position on some loess-derived soils in eastern Golestan Province, Agh-Su watershed. M.Sc. Thesis. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 191p. (In Persian).
AFNOR., 1987. Recueil de normes francaises, qualite des sols, methodes d’analyses. 1. ed. Association francaise de normalisation (Afnor), pp. 19–30. (In French).
Ahmad, S., Islam, M., Mirza, S. N., 2012. Rangeland degradation and management approaches in Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Jour. Botany, 44: 127-136.
Albaladejo, J., 1998. Soil Degradation and Desertification Induced by Vegetation Removal in a Semi and Environment. Soil use and Management, 14: 1-5.
Amghar, F., Forey, E., Margerie, P., Langlois, E., Brouri, L., Kadi-Hanifi, H., 2012. Grazing exclosure and plantation: a synchronic study of two restoration techniques improving plant community and soil properties in arid degraded steppes (Algeria). Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie, 67:257-269.
Bouyoucos, G. J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy, 54: 464–465.
Braunackm, V. and Walker, J., 1985. Recovery of some surface soil properties of ecological interest after sheep grazing in a semi-arid woodland. Australian Jour Ecology, 10:451- 460.
Buckman, H.O.and Brady, N.C., 1960. The Nature and Properties of Soils (6th ed.). Macmillan, New York. p. 567.
David, L. J., Hodge, A. and Kuzyakov, Y., 2004. Plant and mycorrhizal regulation of rhizodeposition. New Phytologist, 163: 459–480.
Dingman, S.L., 2002. Physical Hydrology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 2 nd edition, 646 pp.
Evangelou, V. P., Karathanasis, A. D., Blevins, R. L., 1986. Effect of soil organic matter accumulation on potassium and ammonium quantity-intensity relationships. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50(2):378-382.
Evangelou, V. P. and Blevins, R, L., 1988. Effect of long-term tillage systems and nitrogen addition on potassium Quantity-Intensity relationships. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52(4):1047-1054.
Haftay, H., Yayneshet, T., Animut, G., Treydte, A. C., 2013. Rangeland vegetation responses to traditional enclosure management in eastern Ethiopia. The Rangeland Journal, 35: 29–36.
Harris, R. B., 2010. Rangeland degradation on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau: A review of the evidence of its magnitude and causes. Jour. Arid Environments, 74: 1–12.
Hematzadeh,Y., Barani, H., Kabir, A., 2009. The role of vegetation management on surface runoff (Case study: Kechik catchment in northeast of Golestan Province). Jour. Water and Soil Conservation, 16(2):19-33. (In Persian).
Hinsinger, P., Plassard, C., Jaillard, B., Tang, C. X., 2003. Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: a review. Plant Soil, 248: 43–59.
Hoshino, A., Tamura, K., Fujimaki, H., Asano, M., Ose, K., Higashi, T., 2009. Effects of crop abandonment and grazing exclusion on available soil water and other soil properties in a semi-arid Mongolian grassland. Soil and Tillage Research, 105: 228–235.
Hosseini, S. A., Khatir Namany, J., Akbarzadeh, M., 2012. Studying the Vegetation Changes of Natural Rangelands in Inche Shorezar of Agh Ghala, North Golestan Province, Iran. Jour. Rangeland Science, 2(4):615-623.
Hossienzadeh, G., Jalilvand. H., Tamartash, R., 2008. Vegetation Cover Changes and Some Chemical Soil Properties in Pastures with Different Grazing Intensities. Iranian journal of Range and Desert Research, 14 (4): 500 – 512. (In Persian).
Javadi, S. A., Jafari, M., Azarnivand, H., Alavi, S. j., 2005. An Investigation of the Grazing Intensity Effects on Variations of Soil Organic Matter and Nitrogen in Lar. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 58 (9): 711- 718. (In Persian).
Jeddi, K. and Chaieb, M., 2010. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following livestock grazing exclusion in degraded arid environments of South Tunisia. Flora, 205: 184–189.
Khormali, F. and Shamsi, S., 2009. Investigation of the quality and micro morphology of soil evolution in different landuses of a loess hillslope of Golestan province, a case study in Ghapan region. Jour.Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 16(3):14-27. (In Persian)
Krik, P.L., 1950., Kjeldahl method for total nitrogen. Analytical Chemistry, 22: 354-358.
Lemenih, M., Karltun, E., Olsson, M., 2005. Assessing soil chemical and physical property responses to deforestation and subsequent cultivation in smallholders farming system in Ethiopia. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 105: 373-386.
Mahdavi–Ardakani, S.R, Jafari, M., Zargham, N., Zare – Chahoki, M. A., Baghestani, N., Tavili A. 2011. Investigation on the effects of Haloxylon aphyllum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus and Tamarix aphylla on soil properties in ChahAfzal. Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(4):357-365. (In Persian).
Malakouti, M. J., Homaee, M., 2005. Soil fertility of arid and semi-arid regions "Difficulties and Solutions". 2nd, ed. Tarbiat Modarres University Press, 508p. (In Persian).
Mekuria, W. and Aynekulu, E., 2011. Exclosure land management for restoration of the soils in degraded communal grazing lands in northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development, 24: 528–538.
Mekuria, W., 2013. Conversion of communal grazing lands into exclosures restored soil properties in the semi-arid lowlands of Northern Ethiopia. Arid Land Research and Management, 27: 153–166.
Mir-Deylami.S.Z., Sheidai-Karkaj,E., Akbarlou,M., 2015. Identify the most important changes in the quantitative and qualitative elements of vegetation because of exclosure in Dashtecalpoush rangelands using multivariate analysis. Jour. Rangeland and Watershed management, 68 (2): 371-383.
Mirzaali, E., Mesdaghi, M., Erfanzadeh, R. 2006. The study of effects of exclosure on vegetation and soil surface in saline ranges of Gomishan, Golestan province. Jour. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 13 (2): 194 – 201. (In Persian).
Mureithi, S. M., Verdoodt, A., Gachene, C. K., Njoka, J. T., Vivia, O. W., Neve, S . D., Meyerhoff, E., Ranst, E. V., 2014. Enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya. Jour. Arid Land, 6(5): 561–570.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Page, A.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, vol. 2. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 539–579.
Page, M. C., Sparks, D. L., Woll, M. R., Hendricks, G. J., 1987. Kinetics and mechanisms of potassium release from sandy Middle Atlantic coastal plain Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51:1460-1465.
Patil, G.P., 2002. Composite sampling. pp 387–391. In Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. Edited by El-Shaarawi, A. and Piegorsch, W. John. Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2502p.
Pei, S. h., Fu, H., Wan, C., 2008. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 124: 33-39.
Raiesi, F. and Riahi, M., 2014. The influence of grazing exclosure on soil C stocks and dynamics, and ecological indicators in upland arid and semi-arid rangelands. Ecological Indicators, 41: 145–154.
Rezashateri, M. and Sepehry, A., 2011. The effect of grazing on vegetation dynamics patches. Iranian Jour. Range Desert Research, 17 (4): 604-614. (In Persian).
Salarian, F., Ghorbani, J., Safaeian, N. A., 2013.Vegetation changes under exclosure and livestock grazing in Chahar Bagh rangelands in Golestan province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20 (1): 115-129. (In Persian).
Schneider, K., Huisman, J. A., Breuer, L., Frede, H. G., 2008. Ambiguous effects of grazing intensity on surface soil moisture: A geostatistical case study from a steppe environment in Inner Mongolia, PR China. Jour. Arid Environments, 72: 1305-1319.
Shaltout, K. H., EL-Halawany, E.F., EL-Kady, H. F.,1996. Consequences of protection from grazing on diversity and abundance of the coastal lowland vegetation in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5: 27–36.
Steffens, M., Kolbl, A., Totsche, K. U., Kogel-Knabner, I., 2008. Grazing effects on soil chemical and pHysical properties in a semiarid steppe of Inner Mongolia (P.R. China). Geoderma, 143: 63-72.
Su, Y. Z., Zhao, H. L., Zhang, T. H., Zhao, X. Y., 2004. Soil properties following cultivation and non-grazing of asemiarid sandy grassland in northern China. Soil Tillage Research, 75: 27–36.
Teague, W. R., Dowhowera, S. L., Bakera, S. A, Haileb, N., De Launea, P. B., Conovera, D. M., 2011. Grazing management impacts on vegetation, soil biota and soil chemical, physical and hydrological properties in tall grass prairie. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 141: 310–322.
Vaillant, G. C., Pierzynski, G. M., Ham, J .M., De Roucheym J., 2009. Nutrient Accumulation below Cattle Feedlot Pens in Kansas. Jour. Environmental Quality, 38: 909-918.
Verdoodt, A., Mureithi, S. M., Van – Ranst, E., 2010. Impacts of management and enclosure age on recovery of the herbaceous rangeland vegetation in semi-arid Kenya. Jour. Arid Environments, 74:1066-1073.
Xie, Y. and Wittig, R., 2004. The impact of grazing intensity on soil characteristics of Stipa grandis and Stipa bungeana steppe in North China (autonomous region of Ningxia). Acta Oecol, 25:197–204.
Yates, C. J., Norton, D. A., Hobbs, R. J., 2000. Grazing effects on plant cover, soil and microclimate in fragmented woodlands in south-western Australia: implications for restoration. Australian Ecology, 25: 36–47.
Yong-Zhong. S., Yu-Lin, L., Jian-Yuan, C., Wen-Zhi, Z., 2005. Influences of continuous grazing and livestock exclusion on soil properties in degraded sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, northern China. Catena, 59: 267-278.