Comparative Assessment of Gully Erosion and Sediment Yield in Different Rangelands and Agricultural Areas in Ghasr-e-Shirin, Kermanshah, Iran

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article

Authors

1 Forests and Rangelands Research Institute of Iran

2 2Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Iran

3 Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Iran

4 3Forests and Rangelands Research Institute of Iran

Abstract

Negative impacts of gully erosion in marly areas are severe due to improper landuse practices such as irrigation, tillage, overgrazing and degradation of vegetation cover. The objective of this research was to evaluate gully thresholds related to plant vegetation cover and landuse change in the Agriculture (AG), Fair Rangeland (FR) and Weak Rangeland (WR) areas of Ghaasr-e-Shirin, Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The topographical parameters and vegetation cover were measured in the field. Furthermore, nine flumes were performed to determine the critical values of hydraulic parameter and sedimentation. Results revealed that cross-section, width, depth and gully branches length in the FR were significantly lower than those for AG and WR (p<0.05) affected by plant canopy and litter. The significant differences were found between three sits for soil organic carbon (SOC), electrical conductivity (EC) and hydraulic characteristics (inlet discharge, velocity, loaded sediment). Higher vegetation cover in the FR was attributed to the increased hydraulic thresholds and adversely limited cross-section enlargement. Finally, the sediment concentrations in AG, FR and WR were 15163, 9560 and 12000 ppm, respectively. Lower SOC was found in WR and AG due to higher concentration of load sediment. Hence, it was concluded that bare soil, poor vegetation and lower SOC are considerable reduction factors in gully thresholds and subsequently, off-site sedimentation and SOC loss in the study area.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Adelpour, A.A. and Soufi. M., 2004. Chanel erosion thresholds for different land uses assessed by concenterated overland flow on a silty loam. Conservation Soil and Water for Society; sharing solution ISCO 200-13th international Soil Conservation Organization Conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Agharazi, H., Davudirad, A., Mardian, M and Soufi. M., 2013. Investigation of area slope threshold of gullies in the Zahirabad Watershed, Shazand, Markazi Province. Journal of Watershed Engineering and Management 6 (1): 1-9. (In Persian).

Ahmadi. H., 2011. Applied Geomorphology, Vol. 2; water erosion, 3rd ed. Tehran University. Press. 688 p. (in Persian).

Badripour, H., Barani, H., Aghili, S.M. and Abedi Sarvestani, A., 2016. Study the Role of Natural Capitals on Villagers' Dependence on Rangeland (Case Study: HableRud Basin in Iran). Journal of Rangeland Science, 6 (2): 112-121.

Blanco, H., and Lal, R., 2008. Principles of Soil Conservation and Management. Springer Publisher, New York.

Bobrovitskaya, N.N., 2000. Hydrological, meteorological and morphological aspects of studying gully erosion in period of global change, International Symposium on Gully Erosion under Global Change, P.35.

Cheng, H., Zou, X., Wu, Y., Zhang, C., Qiuhong, Z. & Jiang, Z., 2007. Morphology parameters of ephemeral gully in characteristics hill slopes on the loess plateau of China. Soil & Tillage Research, 94: 4-14.

De Beats, S., J. Poesen, B. Reubens, B. Mays, J. De Baemaeker and J. Meersamans. 2009. Methodological framework to select plant species for controlling rill and gully erosion, application to a Mediterranean ecosystem. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, No 34, page: 1374–1392.

Dong, Y., Wu, Y. and Wang, W., 2011. The comparison of the effects of two approaches tocontrol gully erosion in the Black Soil Region of China. Landform Analysis, 17: 43–46.

Elkhalili, A., Raclot, D., Habaeib, H. and Lamachère, G.M., 2013. Factors and processes of permanent gully evolution in a Mediterranean marly environment (Cape Bon, Tunisia), Hydrological Sciences 58 (7): 1518-1531.

Ghoddousi, J,. Tavakoli, M., 2007.Assessing effect of rangeland exclusion on control and reduction of soil erosion rate and sediment yield in Nomads Affairs. Jehad-e-Agriculture Organization of Shiraz Province - Iran. (In Persian).

Igwe, CA., 2015. Gully Erosion in Southeastern Nigeria: Role of Soil Properties and environmental Factors. Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. http://dx.doi.org.

Kohestani, N. and Yeganeh, H., 2016. Study the Effects of Range Management Plans on Vegetation of Summer Rangelands of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Journal of Rangeland Science, 6 (3): 195-204.

Li, G.L., Pang, X.M., 2010. Effect of land-use conversion on C and N distribution in aggregate fractions of soils in the southern Loess Plateau, China. Land Use Policy, 27: 706-712.

Lutengger, A.J. and Cerato, A.J., 2008. Surface Area and Engineering Properties of Fine-grained Soil. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.

Marden, M., A. Gregory. A. Seymour and R. Hambling. 2012. History and distribution of steepland gullies in response to land use change, East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand Geomorphology, 154: 81-90.

Moradi, E., Heshmati, G.A., Bahramian, A.H., 2012. Assessment of Range Health Changes in Zagros Semi-Arid Rangelands, Iran (Case Study: Chalghafa- Semirom-Isfahan). Journal of Rangeland Science, 3 (1): 31-43.

Munoz-Robles, C., Reid, N., Frazier, P., Tighe, M., Briggs, S. V. and Wilson, B., 2010. Factors related to gully erosion in woody encroachment in south eastern Australia. Catena, 83: 148-157.

Nael, M., Khademi, H.A. and Hajabbasi, M., 2004. Response of soil quality indicators and their spatial variability to land degradation in central Iran. Applied Soil Ecology, 27(3): 221-232.

Naghipour Borj, A.A., Haidarian Aghakhani, M., Nasri, C, M. and Radnezhad, N., 2011. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Modified and Native Rangeland Communities (Case study: Sisab Rangelands, Bojnord). Journal of Rangeland Science, l (4): 309-315.

 Nazari Samani1, A.A., Chen, Q., Khalighi, S. Wasson, R.J. and Rahdari, M.R., 2016. Assessment of land use impact on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiation. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20: 3005–3012.

Nelson, R.E. and Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter. In: Keeney, D.R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R.J., Rhoades., J.D. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Am. Soc. Agro. Soil Sci., Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 539-580.

Nogueras, P., Burjachs, F., Gallart, F. & Puidefabregas, J., 2003. Recent Gully Erosion In El Cautivo Badlands. Catena, 40: 203-215.

Parkner, T., M., Page, M., Marden. N. and Marutani, T., 2007. Gully systems under undisturbed indigenous forest, East Coast Region. Jour. Geomorphology, 84: 241-253.

Poesen, J., Vanwalleghem, T., de Vente, J., 2006. Gully erosion in Europe. In Boardman, J. and Poesen, J. (eds,) Soil Erosion in Europe. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK: 515–36.

Prosser, I.P., Dietrich, W.E. and Stevenson, J., 1995. Flow resistance and sediment transport by concentrated overland flow in a grassland valley, Geomorphology 13: 71-86.

Refahi, H.G., 2009. Water erosion and its control (6th ed.), Tehran University Press. 672 p. (in Persian).

Rey, F. 2003. Influence of vegetation distribution on sediment yield in forested marly gullies. Catena, 50: 549–562.

Shadfar, S., 2015. Assessment of gully erosion using GIS and Fuzzy; (Case study Tarood watershed), Geographical Data SEPEHR Journal 92: 35-42. (In Persian).

Soleimanpour, S.M., 2012. Determining gully erosion threshold in Fars Province, PhD thesis. Islamic Azad university, Research and Science branch, 237 p. (In Persian)

Soleimanpour, S.M., Hedayati, B., Soufi, M. And Ahmadi, H., 2015. Determination of threshold of effective factors on length expansion of gullies using data mining techniques in Mahourmilati region, Fars Province. Watershed Management Science and Engineering, 9 (29): 47-57. (in Persian)

Tebebu, TY., Abiy, AZ, Zegeye, AD., Dahlke, HE., Easton, ZM., Tilahun, SA. and Collick. AS., 2010. Surface and subsurface flow effect on permanent gully formation and upland erosion near Lake Tana in the northern highlands of Ethiopia. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14: 2207–2217.

Turkelboom, F., Poesen, J. and Trebuil, G., 2008. The multiple land degradation effects caused by land–use intensification in tropical steeplands: A catchment Study from northern Thailand, Catena 75:102-116.

Valentine, C., Poesen J. and Li, Y., 2005. Gully erosion: Impacts, factors and control. CATENA, 63:132-153.

Van Reeuwijke, L.P. and Vente, J., 1993. Procedure for soil analysis. International Soil Reference and Information Center, Netherlands

Vandekechove, L., Poesen, J., Oostwoud wijdenes, D., Nachtengaele, J., Kosmas,C., Roxd, M.J., Figueiredo, T. De., 2000. Thresholds for gully initiation and sedimentation inmediterranean Europe. Earth surface processes and land forms. 25: 1201-1220.

 Wani, P.P. and Sudi, R., 2006. Gully control in SAT watershed. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Volume 2 Issue 1: 28 pp.

Wilson, G.V., R.F. Cullum and M.J. Romkens. 2008. Ephemeral gully erosion by preferential flow through a discontinuous soil-pipe. Catena, 73: 98-106.