Factors Affecting Herders Migration Time to Summer Rangelands (Case Study: Kouhdasht Rangelands, Lorestan Province, Iran)

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article


1 Graduate student of range management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2 Associate professor, department of rangeland management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

3 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

4 Associate professor, department of agricultural development and extension, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources


The main objective of this study was to assess factors affecting early entrance and later exit of herders from summer rangelands. The study population consisted of heads of Nomads in Kouhdasht region, Lorestan province, Iran. According to Cochran formula among 1038 Nomadic families, 310 families were selected with stratified random sampling in 2015. In order to assess validity, expert's opinions were considered and face to face interviews and questionnaires were applied to collect data, and Cronbach’s Alpha was used to assess reliability. To determine the factors influencing movement calendar, the factor analysis (principle component analyses) and KMO statistics were used. The variables were ordinated by factor analysis into six factors. Results of Mann-Whitney test indicate that annual herd calving and distance of winter and summer rangelands had a significant effect on livestock entrance and exit date to the summer rangeland. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that herders who had private rangeland and those who had cooperative rangelands leave summer rangelands later and in the right time, respectively. Herders whose main job was ranching had good knowledge about livestock entrance and exit date of rangeland. Results obtained from factor analysis showed that factors of tribes’ tendency to use fresh fodder for their livestock, lack of forage in the winter rangelands and increased annoying insects were effective in early migration of nomadic. The livestock weight loss and lack of places in the winter rangelands were effective in early and late exit of livestock from the summer rangeland.


Main Subjects

Abedi Sarvestani, A., 2014. An overview on early movement of nomadic tribes of Fars province. Jour. Geographical Research. 115: 27-42. (In Persian).

Amanolahi Baharvand, E., 2004. Degradation of Iranian nomadic and sedentary tribes and nomads, National Studies, 5(1): 155-183. (In Persian).

Amanollahi Baharvand, E., 2013. Nomads in Iran, research on nomads and tribes, Shiraz, Agah Publications. Shiraz, Iran, 318 p. (In Persian).

Bagheri, H., Adnani, D. and Tavili, A., 2007. The relationship between livestock with vegetation composition. Research and development in natural resources, 74:155-162. (In Persian).

Bajian, Gh. R., 1995. Best utilization of private pastures in rural rancher’s views. Research and Development, 27: 52-57. (In Persian).

Bakhshandeh Nosrat, A., 1994. Organizing nomad’s livelihood types. Geographical Jour., 35: 86- 102. (In Persian).

Bogale, A., Taeb, M. and Eno, M., 2006. Land ownership and conflict over the use of resources: implication for household vulnerability in eastern Ethiopia. Jour. Ecological Economics, 58, 134-145.

Cochran, W.G., 1977. Sampling techniques. 3nd edition, Wiley and Sons, USA, 428 p.

Cronbach, L. J., 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometric. 16: 297-334.

Eskandari, N., Alizadeh, A. and Mahdavi, P., 2008. Range manager’s policy in Iran. Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Management Organization publication, Tehran, Iran, 185 p. (In Persian).

Farahanifard, S. and Sadeghi, H., 2006. The ownership structure and its impact on the exploitation of natural resources (comparative study), Iranian Jour. Economic Research., 6(4), 1- 24. (In Persian).

Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Organization, 2007. Grazing management and movement methods with a view to preventing early migration. Department of State’s Bureau of arid and semi-arid rangelands. Department of rangeland restoration. Tehran, Iran 89 p.

Ghanbari, I., 2001. Impact assessment of the project admission control winter to summer breeding areas in the province. First National Conference on Livestock and Rangeland Management Research Abstracts, Semnan, Iran 400 p. (In Persian).

Grahn, R., 2008. The Paradox of Pastoral Vulnerability: From Poverty to Power. Oxford: Oxfam, UK. 47 p.

Heidari, Gh., Aghili, S., Barani, H. and Mahbubi, M., 2010. Correlation analysis between range condition and the participation of stakeholders in the implementation of management plans, case study: Baladeh rangeland. Mazandaran province. Jour. Rangelands, 4(1): 138-149. (In Persian).

Jode, H., 2010. Modern and Mobile: The Future of Livestock production in Africans Dry lands. U: International Institute for Environment & Development (IIED), pp: 1-92.

Mckean, M. and Ostrom, E., 1995. Common Property Regimes in the Forest: Just a Relic from the past?. Unasylva, 46: 3-15.

Mehrabi, A. S., 1990. Nomads residence and rangeland issues. Proceedings of nomadic life Shiraz development strategy seminar. Tehran Publication, Naghshe bayan. 712 p. (In Persian).

Neudert, R., 2010. The paradox of pastoral land tenure: Are solutions with individualized tenure possible? A case study from Azerbaijan. Proceedings of ISEE Conference: Advancing Sustainability in a Time of crisis, 22-25 August, olden burg and Bremen, Germany. 1-32p.

PapaliYazdi, M. H. and Labaf Khaniki, D., 2000. Rangeland utilization system. Jour. Geographical Research, 56: 7-40. (In Persian).

Scoons, I., 1995. Living with Uncertainty: New Directions in Pastoral Development in Africa. Intermediate Technology Publications, Exeter. London. UK. 37– 46 p.

Seidi Shahivandi, M., Khaledi, SH., Shakiba, R. and Mirbagheri, B., 2013. Climatic zoning of corn farming in Lorestan province using GIS techniques. Applied Geographical Science Research. 29:195 - 214. (In Persian).

Shah Mohammad, R., Khatoonabadi, S.A. and Rajabi, M. R., 2005. A survey on Bakhtiari nomadic tribes on control plan for early entrance to summer rangeland in Isfahan, Jour. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of the Caspian Sea, 1: 55 - 68. (In Persian).

Shamekhi, T., 2009. Natural Resources and Watershed Development Plan Mazandaran, Sari, Ofogh publication. Sari, Iran 76 p. (In Persian).

Zare Chahooki, M. A., 2010. Analysis of the data in the study of natural resources with software SPSS. Publications of University of Tehran. 310 p. (In Persian).