The Structure of Plant Population of Forested Rangeland in Different Legal Definitions (Case Study: Sabzkouh Region, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province, Iran)

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article

Authors

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2 Professor of Natural resorces university

3 Professor of Gorgan University

4 Faculty of Forestry, Gorgan University of Agricultural, Iran

Abstract

There is less published research on ecosystems of forested rangeland in Iran. This research was conducted to investigate the forested rangeland area based on legal definition via comparison of indices species richness, diversity, and morphology of the trees and shrubs in Sabzkouh watershed, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province, Iran. Quantitative characteristics of trees and shrubs were measured by 56 transects using the 'sample line with the fixed tree' method in 2016. In each transect five plots were thrown to measure understory factors. The data was divided into two categories, less and more than 1% and 5%, according to legal definitions of tree canopy cover percentage. In addition, timber volume was divided into two categories, less and more than 20 (m3/ha). Two independent sample analyses (U test and T test) were used to compare between communities and Kappa index method were used check the maps accuracy. In this study, no significant differences were observed in structural changes in two community of 5% crown canopy. The results showed that in habitats, crown canopy more than 1%, and the timber volume less than 20 (m3/ha) based on legal definition were estimated as a common area of forested rangeland. In this range the best crown canopy 0.5 to 4 percent, shrub height up to 2.7 m, the tree density 21 to 156 per ha, the (DBH) 10 cm, timber volume up to 20 m3/ha has been extracted. This area was introduced with an increase in understory species richness. The main associated species of forested rangeland in this area were dominants shrubs. The comparisons of the maps the Kappa index confirmed the introduced area as a wooded rangeland in a good agreement. Hence, to decline a little interfered and to achieve more accurate results, it is suggested to research on native people and expert definition.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abule, E., Snyman, H.A. and Smit, G.N., 2007. Rangeland evaluation in the middle Awash valley of Ethiopia: II Woody vegetation. Jour. Arid Environments. 70: 272-292.

Askari, y., 2012. The evaluation of different methods of sampling to estimate the parameters of Chartagh reserved forest. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahrekord University, Iran, 57 p. (In Persian).

Belay, T.A., Totland, Q. and Moea, S.R., 2013. Woody vegetation dynamics in the rangelands of lower Omo region, south western Ethiopia. Jour. Arid Environments, 89 (2): 94-102.

Cyrus, M.M., 1998. The biology and utilization of shrubs. First edition, Academic INC. Harcourt Brace publication. 180 p.

Dean, Ch., Roxburgh, S.H., Harper, R.J., Eldridge, D., Watson, I.W., Grant, W. and Wardell, J., 2012. Accounting for space and time in soil carbon dynamics in timbered rangelands. Ecological Engineering, 38 (1): 51– 64.

Ellis, E.C., 2011. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere Philos. Environmental Management, 83: 416–426.

Erfanifard, S.Y. and Mouselo, M., 2013. Assessment of crown measurement techniques in coppice trees of Zagros forests by ultra Cam-D aerial imagery. Jour. Forest and Wood Product, 66 (4): 413-426. (In Persian).

Eskandari, N., Alizadeh, A. and Mahdavi, F., 2008. Rangelands policy in Iran. Second edition, Pooneh publication. Tehran, Iran, 185 p. (In Persian).

Esmaeili Vardanjani, R., 2013. Feasibility of development of the west Oak forest in the degraded wooded rangeland in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province according to climatic and topographic conditions (case study: Ardal and Naghan area. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahrekord University, Iran, 180 p. (In Persian).

FRWO, (Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Organization), 2012. Comprehensive bill of national resources. First edition, FRWO publication. Tehran, Iran, Pages: 44. (In Persian).

FRWO, 2007. Sabzkouh meteorology report. Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari watershed office, Iran, pages: 158. (In Persian).

Heidari, B., 2005. A study on the forest structure in natural and degraded stands in Baneh region. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Sari University, Iran, 75 p. (In Persian).

Heubach, K., Wittig, R., Nuppenau, E. and Hahn, K., 2011. The economic importance of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for livelihood maintenance of rural West African communities: (A case study from northern Benin). Ecological Economics, 70 (11): 1991–2001.

IDE (Iranian Department of Environment), 2011. Habitats and four regions management office, Iranian Department of Environment publication. Tehran, Iran, 123 p. (In Persian).

Jazirehi, M.H. and Ebrahimi Rastaghi, M., 2013. Silviculture in Zagros. Second edition, University of Tehran publication. Tehran, Iran, 560 p. (In Persian).

Marvi Mohajer, M., 2005. Silvics and silviculture. First edition, Tehran University publication. Tehran, Iran, 387 p. (In Persian).

Mesdaghi, M., 1997. Range management in Iran. First edition, Imam Reza publication. Mashhad, Iran, 259 p. (In Persian).

Mesdaghi, M., 2005. Plant ecology. First Edition, Jahade Daneshgahi publication. Mashhad, Iran, 187 p. (In Persian).

Milan, M,J., Bartolome, J. and Quintanilla, R., 2006. Structural characterization and typology of beef cattle farms of Spanish wooded rangelands (dehesas). Livestock Science, 99: 197– 209.

Mirakzadeh, A.A., Baharmi, M. and Ghiasvand Ghiasy, F., 2011. Analysis of the effective factors on sustainable exploitation of forest's wood (case study: Dejhen village in Kamyaran County). Jour. Forest and Wood Product, 64 (1): 91-106. (In Persian).

Mirdavoodi, H., 2014. Effect of grazing and environmental factors on the structure of brant`s Oak stands of Zagros (Case study: Dalab Park, Ilam). Breeding and Genetic Research, 22 (3): 461-472. (In Persian).

Moghadam, M.R., 2001. Range and Range management. Second Edition, Tehran University publication. Tehran, Iran, 470 p. (In Persian).

Monserud, R.A. and Leemans, R., 1992. Comparing global vegetation maps with the Kappa statistic. Ecological modeling, 62: 275-293.

Papachristou, T.G., Dziba, L.E. and Provenza, F.D., 2005. Foraging ecology of goats and sheep on wooded rangelands. Small Ruminant Research, 59 (2-3): 141–156.

PirBavaghar, M., 2011. Evaluation of capability of IRS-P6 satellite data for predicting quantitative attributes of forests (Case Study: northern Zagros forests). Jour. Iranian Forest, 3 (4): 277-289. (In Persian).

Post, M.D., Doyle, M.W., Sabo, J.L. and Finaly, J.C., 2007. The problem of boundaries in defining ecosystems: A potential landmine for uniting geomorphology and ecology. Geomorphology, 89: 111–126.

Pourhashemi, M., Zandebasiri, M. and Panahi, P., 2014. Structural characteristics of Oak coppice stands of Marivan forests. Jour. Iranian Biology, 27 (5): 766-776. (In Persian).

Raeisi, F., Asadi, E. and Mohammadi, J., 2005. Effects of long-term grazing on the dynamics of litter carbon in natural rangelands of Sabzkouh of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiary. Jour. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 9 (3): 81-91. (In Persian).

Sadeghi Kaji, H., Zafariyan, I. and Badfar, K., 2014. N-tree distance sampling vs. fixed-radius plots methods for tree density estimation in central Zagros forest. Forest and Poplar Research, 22 (3): 381-391.

Salehi, A., Mohammadi, A. and Safari, A., 2011. Investigation and comparison of physical and chemical soil properties and quantitative characteristics of trees in less-damaged and damaged area of Zagros forests (Case study: Poldokhtar, Lorestan province). Jour. Iranian Forest, 3(1): 81-89. (In Persian).

Sass, G.Z., Wheatley, M., Aldred, D.A., Gould, A.J. and Creed, I.F., 2012. Defining protected area boundaries based on vascular-plant species richness. Biological Conservation, 147 (1): 143-152.

Shamekhi, T., 2009. Regulation & administration of natural resources. First edition, Tehran University publication. Tehran, Iran, 463 p. (In Persian).

Sharafatmandrad, M., Sepehry, A. and Barani, H., 2014. Plant species and functional type's diversity in relation to grazing in arid and semi-arid rangelands, Iran Khabr National Park. Jour. Rangeland Science, 4(3): 203-215.

Sitzia, T., Trentanovi, G., Dainese, M., Gobbo,G., Lingua, E. and Sommacal, M., 2012. Stand structure and plant species diversity in managed and abandoned silver fir mature wooded rangeland. Forest Ecology and Management, (270): 232–238.

Sohrabi, H., Askari, Y. and Zobeir, M., 2013. Accuracy of line sampling method for estimating canopy cover and density of Zagros forests in Chartagh, Ardal. Jour. Forest and Wood Product, 66 (3): 267-376. (In Persian).

Szabo, P., 2010. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe. Jour. Historical Geography, 36 (2): 205–214.

Taheri Abkenar, K., 2010. Silvics of forests out of northern Iran. First edition, Haghshenas publication. Sari, Iran, 152 p. (In Persian).

Tashakori zadeh, M. and Matinkhah, S.H., 2009. Investigation on the effects of crown canopy of trees on pasture yield and quality of understory vegetation in central Zagros. Iranian Jour. Forest, 1(4): 313-320. (In Persian).

Thomas, H.J.D., Paterson, J.S., Metzger, M.J. and Sing, L., 2015. Towards a research agenda for woodland expansion in Scotland. Forest Ecology and Management, 349:149–161.

Tomppo, E. and Czaplewski, R.L., 2002. Potential for a Remote Sensing- Aided Forest Resource Survey for the Whole Globe. Unasylva, 53 (210): 16-18.

Villanueva Patrida, C., Casanova-Lugo, F., Villanueva-Lopez, G., Gonzales-Valadiva, N., Oros-Ortega, I. and Diaz-Echeverria, V., 2016. Influence of the density of scattered trees in pastures on the structure and species composition of tree and grass cover in southern Tabasco, Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environmrnt, 232: 1-8.

Wessels, K.J., Mathieu, R., Erasmus, B.F.N., Asner, G.P., Smit, I.P.G., Van, J.A.N., Main, R., Fisher, J., Marais W., Kennedy-Bowdoind, T., Knapp, D.E., Emerson, R. and Jacobson, J., 2011. Impact of communal land use and conservation on woody vegetation structure in the Lowveld savannas of South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 261(1): 19–29.

Zobeiri, M., 1994. Forest inventory (tree and forest). First edition, Tehran University publication. Tehran, Iran, 400 p. (In Persian).

Zobeiri, M., 2007. The forest biometry. Second edition, Tehran University publication. Tehran, Iran, 405 p. (In Persian).