Cassava Bran– Fish Processing Waste as Dry Season Feed Resources for Sheep in Nigeria Southern Guinea Savannah

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Department of Animal Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

2 Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

3 Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.


Seasonal variability impact on livestock production and management stems from poor pasture quality and quantity as well as shortage of water. During wet season, there is usually sufficient quantity of pasture in good quality for animal consumption; but during dry season, there is always insufficient pasture as well as shortage of water for livestock consumption. As a result of these, exploration of resilience livestock production and management practices capable of enhancing animal performance during dry season becomes highly necessary. Based on the above background, a 12 weeks trial was carried out during January, February and March in 2015 to determine the effects of cassava bran plus fish processing waste supplement on body weight gain, blood composition and meat quality of West African Dwarf sheep at a location within Nigeria Southern Guinea Savannah. Twelve growing lambs were randomly allotted to three Treatments; each fed dried cassava peel ad-libitum in addition to 0%, 1.5%, or 2.5% body weight equivalent quantity of the cassava bran-fish processing waste supplement throughout the feeding trial. Sheep fed control (0%) diet had negative body weight change (P<0.05). Sheep fed cassava bran-fish processing waste supplement at 2.5% body weight level had higher (P<0.05) body weight, nutrient composition and carcass yield. Treatment effects on sheep organoleptic properties and meat fatty-acids composition were significant (P<0.05). Our study established that cassava bran and fish processing waste are potential dry season feed resources suitable for growing lambs since it has no negative impact on the health of the animals and it promote growth and performance of the animals. We recommend further studies into full integration and improvement of diets prepare from cassava bran and fish processing waste for sheep feeding during dry season; also investigation into possibilities of incorporating fish processing waste into production of silage for growing lambs.


Main Subjects

Adegbola, A.A., Smith, O.B. and Okeudo, N.J., 1986. Responses of West African Dwarf sheep fed cassava peel and poultry manure based diets. In: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the University of Alexandria, Egypt. Preston T. R. and Nuwanyakpa, M. Y. (eds). pp. 105-115.
Ademola, S.G., Sikiru, A.B., O. Akinwumi, O.F. Olaniyi and Egbewande, O.O., 2011. Performance, yolk lipids, egg organoleptic properties and hematological parameters of laying hens fed cholestyramine and garlic oil. Global Veterinaria, 6(6): 542-546.
AOAC., 2000. Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Official Methods of Analysis. 6th Edition. Washington DC, USA.
Ayantunde, A., Tarawali, S. & Wright, I., 2011. Rangeland-based livestock production system in the arid and semi-arid tropics: challenges and opportunities. Livestock Exchange. Issue Brief November 2011. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).
Beerman, D.H., Hogue, D.E., Fishell, V.K., Dairymple, R.H. and Ricks, C.A., 1986. Effect of cimaterol and fishmeal on performance, carcass characteristics and skeletal muscle growth in lambs. Jour. Anim. Sci. 62: 370-380.
Dairo, F.A.S., 2011. Utilization of ensiled metabolizable mixture of cassava peel and caged layers manure as energy source in broiler diet. African Jour. Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 11(5):
Dong, N. T. K., 2005. Evaluation of agro-industrial by-products as protein sources for duck production in the Mekong delta of Vietnam. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved from
Eustace, A.I. and Dorothy, M.L., 2001. Protein enrichment of cassava by-products through solid state fermentation by fungi. The Jour. Food Technology in Africa. 6(4): 116-118.
Fasae, O.A., Odoguwa, B.O, Adejumo, L.A., Makinde, T.E., 2014. Carcass and meat characteristics of traditionally managed Nigerian Yankasa and West African Dwarf breeds of sheep. Pertanika Jour. Trop. Agric. Sci. 37(1): 101-108.
Ganiyu, O., 2006. Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp. solid media fermentation techniques. Electronic Jour. Biotechnology, 9(1)
Jayathilakan, K., Sultana, K., Radhakrishna, K. & Bawa, A. S., 2012. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: A review. Jour. Food Science and Technology, 493: 278-293.
Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Carballo, J., and Cofrades, S., 2001. Healthier meat and meat products: their role as functional foods. Meat Science, 59(1): 5–13.
Kamra, D.N., 2005. Rumen microbial ecosystem. Microbial Diversity. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India.
Lee, S.S., Shin, K.J, Kim, W.Y., Ha, J.K. and Han, I.K., 1999. The rumen ecosystem: As a function source of Nobel enzymes. Asian-Aus. Jour. Anim. Sci., 12(6): 988-1001.
Njidda, A.A., Shuai’bu and Isidahomen, C.E., 2014. Haematological and serum indices of sheep in semi-arid environment of Northern Nigeria. Global Jour. Science Frontier Research. Global Jour. Inc. (USA). ISSN: 2249-4626.
Nkedianye, D., 2008. Assessing returns to land and changing livelihood strategies in Kitengela. IN: Homewood, K. et al. Changing Land Use and Livelihoods in Maasailand. Springer.
Olufunke, O.E, Ogugu, C.A, Hans, P.B. and Thadders, C.E., 2010. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316). African Jour. Biotechnology, 9 (2): 187-194
Pandey, A., Soccol, C. R., Nigam, P., Soccol, V. T. and Mohan, R., 2000. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II. Cassava bagasse. Bioresource Technol, 74:81-87.
Salami, R. I. and Odunsi, A. A., 2003. Evaluation of processed cassava peel meals as substitutes for maize in the diets of layers. International Jour. Poultry Science, 22: 112-116.
Thuy, N. T., 2010. Evaluation of catfish by-products as protein sources for pigs in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (Vol. 2010). Retrieved from
Wood, J., Richardson, R., Nute, G., Fisher, A., Campo, M., Kasapidou E., Enser, M., 2004. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Science, 661: 21–32.