Investigating Vegetation of Mowed and Grazed Areas in Tamdere Village Alpine Pastures in Turkey

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article


Ordu University


Activities of transhumance ongoing have been mostly carried out in alpine pastures for centuries in Turkey. These pastures used unconsciously have faced to the danger of extinction. In order to implement improvement plans in the mentioned areas, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of pastures should be determined. This study was conducted in the mowed and grazed pastures in alpine zones in Anatolia, Turkey in 2013 and 2016. In the study, botanical compositions, quality degree, condition and healthy of areas, hay yield, grazing capacity and basal plant coverage of the pastures were investigated. Loop method was used for vegetation measurements concerning the blooming time of commanding plant species. According to the results obtained from the research, 146 taxa were identified involving 8 endemic from 30 families. In the mowed pastures, the average values of botanical composition were found as 31.61% grasses, 18.65% legumes and 49.74% other plant families and in the grazed pastures, the average of composition was estimated as 37.75% grasses, 14.25% legumes and 49.00% other plant families. Botanical compositions of grasses (P≤0.01), legumes (P≤0.05) and other families (P≤0.05) were significantly different among the areas. Although all of the studied pastures were in the healthy quality degree and conditions (P≤0.05) and danger of erosion has not been seen, quality of forage and grazing is not adequate in the study areas. Hay yield was given as 2869 kg ha-1(P≤0.01) in the mowed areas and 1912 kg ha-1 (P≤0.01) in the grazed areas. Grazing capacities in the mowed and grazing pastures were identified as 9.37 (P≤0.01) and 6.87(P≤0.01) animal unit ha-1, respectively and it was detected that the examined pastures were grazed over their capacity. According to situation of vegetation, it can be said that climax vegetation of pastures was perished and the management measures should be planned for grazing capacity. Pasture breeding studies should be paid attention. In addition, weed control, top seeding and fertilizing should be conducted.


Main Subjects

Alibegovic-Grbic, S., Bezdrob, M., Murtic, S., 2008. Botanical composition of mat-grass (Nardus stricta) grassland communities. Grassland Science in Europe, 13: 916-918.

Altın, M., Gökkuş, A., Koç, A., 2011. Pasture and Meadow Management 2nd volume. Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Year: 2004. ISBN: 978-605-61805-2-1(2.c).

Avcioglu, R., Soya, H., Kendir, H., 2010. Protection and use of rangelands in Turkey. Turkey Agricultural Engineering VII. Technical Congress. 11-15 January. pp. 199-213.

Babalık, A.A., 2008. Relations between vegetation structure and soil properties and topographic factors of Isparta region. Doctoral Thesis. SDÜ. Science. Inst. Isparta.

Bakır, Ö., 1999. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural. Management and improvement of Meadow –Pasture. Grazing Capacity. pp. 181-206. Ankara, Turkey.

Carleton, S. W., Pendleton, R.L., Pendleton, B.K., 2006. Respond two semiarid grassland to a second fire application. Rangeland Ecology & Management. 59(1): 98-106.

Cao, G., Tang, Y., Mo, W., Wang, Y., Li. Y., Zhao, X., 2004. Grazing intensity alters soil respiration in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan plateau. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 36: 237-243.

Çomaklı, B., Öner, T., Daşcı, M., 2012. Change of vegetation cover in pasture lands with different usage history. Iğdır University Jour. Science Institute, 2(2): 75-82.

Eminağaoğlu, Ö., 2004. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forest and Environment Nature Conservation and National Parks General Directorate GEF-II Project Directorate. Caucasus Mixed Temperate Rain Forest and High Alpine Meadows. Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management Project Flora Surveys Final Report.

Fairbridge, W.R., Oliver, J.E., 2005. Lapse rate. In: Encyclopedia of World Climatology (J. E. Oliver Ed.). Springer. Dordrecht. 448-450.

Fırıncıoğlu, H.K., Şahin, B., Seefeldt, S., Mert, F., Hakyemez., Vural, M., 2008. Pilot Study for an Assessment of Vegetation Structure for Steppe Rangelands of Central Anatolia. Turk Jour. Agric, 32: 401-414.

Deveci, M., Özbucak, T.B., Demirkol, G., 2012. Investigation of Flora of Ordu University Campus. Jour. Academic Agriculture, 1(2): 107-116

De Vries, D.M., De Boer, T.H.A., Dirver, J.P.P., 1951. Evaluation of grassland by botanical research in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the United Nations Scientific Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of Resources. Vol: 6. Land resources. United Nation Department of Economic Affairs. pp. 522-524.

Dong, S.K., Li, J.P., Li, X.Y., Wen, L., Zhu, L., Li, Y.Y., Ma, Y.S., Shi, J.J., Dong, Q.M.,Wang, Y.L., 2010. Application of design theory for restoring the black beach degraded rangeland at the headwater areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(25): 3542–3552.

Dong, S.K., Wen, L., Liu, S.L., Zhang, X.F., Lassoie, J.P., Yi, S.L., Li, X.Y., Li, J.P., Li, Y.Y., 2011. Vulnerability of worldwide pastoralism to global changes and interdisciplinary strategies for sustainable pastoralism. Ecol. Soc., 16 (2): 10.

Gençkan, M.S., Avcıoğlu, R., Soya, H., Doğan, O.O., 1990. The Problems Regarding the Usage. Protection and Development of Turkey Pastures and Their Solutions. Turkey Agricultural Engineering 3rd Technical Congress. 53-61. Ankara.

Gökkuş, A., 1994. Secondary succession in abandoned areas. Atatürk Uni. No: 787. Agri. Fak. No: 321. Aras. No: 197. Erzurum. 61.

Gökkuş, A., Koç, A., Çomaklı, B., 1995. Meadow-Pasture Practice Guide. Atatürk University. Agriculture Faculty. No: 142. Erzurum. 139.

Gökkuş, A., Koç, A., 2001. Management of Meadow and Pasture. University of Atatürk. Lecture Publications. No: 228. Erzurum.

Holechek, L. J., Pieper, R.D., Herbel, C. H., 2004a. Range Ecology. Range Management. Principles and Practices. Pearson Education. Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. p. 146-185.

Holechek, J.L., Pieper, R.D., Herbel, C. H., 2004b. Range management: Principles and practices. Prentice Hall. New Jersey 607 p.

Holechek, J.L., Galt, D., Khumalo, G. 2006. Grazing and Grazing Exclusion Effects on New Mexico Shortgrass Prairie. Jour. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 59:655–659.

Jaccard, P., 1912. The Distribution of the Flora of the Alpine Zone. New Phytology. 11: 37-50.

Kılınç, M., 1985. The vegetation of the region between the Devrez Stream and the Kızılırmak River in the Central Anatolian-Western Black Sea Crossing District. Nature Science Magazine Series, A2. 9(2): 315–357.

Koç, A., Comakli, B., Gokkus, A., Tahtacioglu, L., 1994a. The effects of nitrogen. phosphorus and ungrazed on plant density of Guzelyurt village in Erzurum. Proc. Turkey Field Crops Congress. Vol: Forage and Grassland. Izmir. pp: 78–82.

Koç, A., Gökkuş, A., Serin, Y., 1994b. The situation and important of the erosion side of meadows – rangelands in Turkey. Ecology Environment Jour. 13: 36-41

Koç, A., Gökkuş, A., Altın, M., 2003. Comparison of commonly used determination methods of rangeland condition in the world and a suggestion for Turkey. Turkey V. Field Crops Congress. 13-17 October. Diyarbakır, p. 36-42.

Koç, A., Çakal, Ş., 2004. Comparison of some rangeland canopy coverage methods. Int. Soil Congress on Natural Research Management for Sustainable Development. June 7-10. Erzurum-Turkey. 41-45.

Li, W., Cao, W., Wang, J., Li, X., Xu, Ch., Shi, Sh., 2017. Effects of grazing regime on vegetation structure. Productivity. Soil quality. Carbon and nitrogen storage of alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Ecological Engineering, 98: 123–133.

Luan, J.W., Cui, L.J., Xiang, C.H., Wu, J.H., Song, H.T., Ma, Q.F., Hu, Z.D., 2014. Different grazing removal exclosures effects on soil C stocks among alpine ecosystems in east Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ecol. Eng, 64: 262–268.

Mekuria, W., Aynekulu, E., 2013. Exclosure land management for restoration of thesoils in degraded communal grazing lands in northern Ethiopia. Land Degrad. Develop 24(6): 528–538.

Milchunas, D. G., Laurenroth. W.K., 1993. Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecological Monographs, 63: 327–366.

Özbucak, T.B., Kutbay, H.G., Özbucak, S., 2006. The flora of Ordu Boztepe picnic area. Ecology, 15: 37-42.

Özbucak, T.B., Kutbay, H.G., 2008. The flora of lower parts of Melet River (Ordu). Jour. Applied Biological Science, 2(3): 79–88.

Parker, K.W., Harris, R.W., 1959. The 3-step method for measuring condition and trend of forest ranges: A resume of its history, development and use. In: Forest Exp. Sta. Proc. USDA. Washington. D.C., pp. 55-69.

Puerto, A., Rico. M., Matias, M.D., Garcia, J.A., 1990. Variation in structure and diversity in Mediterranean grasslands related to trophic status and grazing intensity. Jour. Vegetation Science, 1. 445-452.

Raiesi, F. and Riahi, M., 2014. The influence of grazing exclosure on soil C stocks anddynamics. and ecological indicators in upland arid and semi-arid rangelands. Ecol. Indic. 41:145–154.

Schreiber, P., 1904. Über die Beziehungen zwischen dem Niederschlag und der Wasserführung der Flüsse in Mitteleuropa, Meteorolog, 21: 441-452.

Semmartin, M., Garibaldi, L.A., Chaneton, E.J., 2008. Grazing history effects onabove- and below-ground litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in twoco-occurring grasses. Plant Soil 303 (1): 177–189.

Serin, Y., 2005. Meadow and Range Plants Handbook. The General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Improvement, the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

Tasser, E., Mader, M., Tappeiner, U., 2003. ‘Effects of Land use in Alpine Grasslands on the Probability of Landslides’ Basic and Applied Ecology, 4 (3): 271-280.

Terzioğlu, S., 1998. Flora and vegetation of Uzungöl (Trabzon-Çaykara) and its surroundings. Doctoral Thesis. K. T.U. Institute of Science and Technology. Istanbul.

TSMS, 2016. Turkish State Meteorological Service. (accessed 09.11.16).

TSI, 2016. Turkey Statistical Institute. (accessed 28.11.16).

Ünal, S., Dedebali, M., Öcal, M.M., 2010. Ecological interpretations of Rangeland Condition of Some Villages in Kirikkale Province of Turkey. Turkish Jour. Field Crops, 15(1): 43-49.

Wang, Y.F., Wang, S.P., 1999. Influence of different stoking rates on above ground present biomass and herbage quality on the Inner Mongolia Steppe. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 8:15–20.

Wen, L., Dong, S.K., Li, Y.Y., Sherman, R., Shi, J.J., Liu, D.M., Wang, Y.L., Ma, Y.S., Zhu, L., 2013. The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the spatial heterogeneity of alpine grassland vegetation at a small scale on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 185(10): 8051–8064.

Zhang, Y., Gao, Q.Z., Dong, S.K., Liu, S.L., Wang, X.X., Su, X.K., Li, Y.Y., Tang, L., Wu, X.Y., Zhao, H.D., 2015. Effects of grazing and climate warming on plant diversity. Productivity and living state in the alpine rangelands and cultivated grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Rangeland Jour. 37(1): 57-65.

Zhao, H.L., He, Y.H., Zhou, R.L., Su, Y.Z., Li, Y.Q., Drake, S., 2009. Effects of desertification on soil organic C and N content in sandy farmland and grassland of Inner Mongolia. Catena, 77(3): 187-191.

Zuazo, V.H.G., Pleguezuelo, C.R.R., 2008. Soil-erosion and runoff prevention by plant covers. A review, Agron. Sustain. Dev. 28: 65–86