Genus Salsola: Its Benefits, Uses, Environmental Perspectives and Future Aspects - a Review

Document Type: Review and Short Length Article

Authors

1 The University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2 The University college of Agriculture, The University of Sargodha

3 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faislabad

4 University of Agriculture, Faislabad

5 QAAFI, University of Queensland

Abstract

Genus Salsola, a genus of annual semi-dwarf to dwarf shrubs and woody tree species, is widely distributed across the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Several features like high fodder value, abundant seed production, tolerance to extreme climatic conditions like high temperature and prolonged drought conditions contributed significantly towards its success as a potential forage species in semi-arid to arid environments. Species of this genus are of significant importance and species like Salsola soda are cultivated and consumed as vegetables in Italy, while others (S. tragus and S. baryosoma) are utilized as livestock fodder in arid and dry areas. The species of genus Salsola are grouped as halophytes, which are also useful for rehabilitation and reclamation of degraded saline lands and saline soils, respectively. Many plants of this genus are used in medicines and cosmetics as they are cure for human heart, skin diseases, cough and influenza. This paper comprises a comprehensive review on the important species of Salsola, along with its medicinal uses and other useful properties that will aid the researcher in determining the need of future research. We focus on the adaptive features of genus Salsola plants for their effective utilization in drought prone semi-arid to arid conditions and also to remediate degraded saline soils.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Ali, I., Chaudhry, M. S., & Farooq, U., 2009. Camel rearing in Cholistan desert of Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 29(2): 85-92.

Al-Saleh, F.S., Ali, H.H. and Mirza, M., 1993: Chemical constituents of some medicinal plants growing in Bahrain. Fitoterapia, 64: pp.251-256.

Anderson, R. L., and Greb, B. W., 1987. Residual herbicides for weed control in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Crop Protection, 6: 6163.

Badshah, L., & Hussain, F., 2011. Farmer’s preferences and use of local fodder flora in Tank District, Pakistan. African Journal of Bio technology, 10(32): 6062-6071.

Beckie, H. J., & Francis, A., 2009. The biology of Canadian weeds. 65. Salsola tragus L. (Updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 89(4): 775-789.

Berglund, D, and Zollinger, R., 2003. Russian thistles and kochia for forage. [Online] Available: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/ pubs/plantsci/hay/a125w.htm [2008 July 15].

Beyaoui, A., Chaari, A., Ghouila, H., Ali Hamza, M. H., & Ben Jannet, H., 2012. New antioxidant bibenzyl derivative and iso flavonoid from the Tunisian Salsola tetrandra Folsk. Natural product research, 26(3): 235-242.

Boller, B., Willner, E., Maggioni, L., & Lipman, E., 1999. Compilers. 2005: Report of a Working Group on Forages. In seventh meeting (pp. 85).

Botschantzev, V. P., 1974. A synopsis of Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) from South and South-West Africa. Kew Bulletin 29: 597-±614.

Botschantzev, V. P., 1975, Species subsection Vermiculatae Botsch. sectionis Caroxylon (Thunb.) Fenzl genus Salsola L. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum Vascularium 12: 160-±196.

Botschantzev, V. P., 1976. Species subsection Cocco salsola Fenzl genus Salsola L.

Botschantzev, V.P., 1969. Genus Salsola L.-concise history of its development and dispersal. Botanical Journal, 54 (7): 989-1001.

Boulos, L., 1991. The Identity, Typification and Distribution of Salsola imbricata Forsskål: Studies in the Chenopodiaceae of Arabia 1. Kew bulletin, 137-140.

Burrill, L. C., Braunworth JR, W. S., William, R. D., Parker, R., Swan, D. G., & Kidder, D. W., 1988. Pacific Northwest weed control handbook. (pp.276) Cooperative Extension of Oregon State University, Washington State University and University of Idaho.

Cannon, J. P., Allen, E. B., Allen, M. F., Dudley, L. M. and Jurinak, J. J., 1995. The effects of oxalates produced by Salsola tragus on the phosphorus nutrition of Stipa pulchra. Oecolgia (Berl.) 102: 265-_272.

Centofanti, T. and Banuelos, G., 2015: Evaluation of the halophyte Salsola soda as an alternative crop for saline soils high in selenium and boron.Journal of environmental management, 157: pp.96-102.

Chinnock, R. J., 2010: Some observations on Salsola L. (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 24: 75-80.

Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Fallovo, C., Cardarelli, M. and Graifenberg, A., 2006: Use of Salsola soda as a companion plant to improve greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum) performance under saline conditions. New Zealand journal of crop and horticultural science, 34(4): pp.283-290.

Creager RA., 1988. The biology of Mediterranean saltwort, Salsola vermiculata. Weed Technology, 2(3):369-374.

Creager RA., 1990. Control of young Mediterranean saltwort (Salsola vermiculata) with post emergence herbicides. Weed Technology, 4(2):376-379.

Crompton, C.W., Bassett, I.J., 1985: The biology of Canadian weeds. 65. Salsola pestifer: A. Nels. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65, 379–388.

Dagar, J.C., 1995. Characteristics of halophytic vegetation in India. In: Khan, M.A. and Ungar, I.A. pp. 255-276. Biology of Salt Tolerant Plants. (Eds.),University of Karachi, Karachi. 476 pp.

De la Rosa, G., Martínez-Martínez, A., Pelayo, H., Peralta-Videa, J.R., Sanchez-Salcido, B. and Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., 2005: Production of low-molecular weight thiols as a response to cadmium uptake by tumbleweed (Salsola kali). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 43(5): pp.491-498.

Dixon, Richard A., and Nancy L. Paiva. 1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The plant cell 7: 1085.

Elsharabasy, F. S., & Hosney, A. M., 2013. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Salsola inermis. Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal, 12(1): 90.

Farmer, D. A., Fowler, J. L., & Hageman, J. H., 1976. Evaluation of protein and nutritive fiber content of cultivated Russian thistle. Agronomy Journal, 68(4): 691-692.

Fowler, J. L., Hageman, J. H., Moore, K. J., Suzukida, M., Assadian, H., & Valenzuela, M., 1992. Salinity effects on forage quality of Russian thistle. Journal of Range Management, 559-563.

Gangwere, S. K., Mckinney, J. C., Ernemann, M. A., & Bland, R. G., 1998.: Food selection and feeding behavior in selected Acridoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera) of the Canary Islands, Spain. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 1-21.

Gintzburger G., Toderich K.N., Mardonov B.K., Makhmudov M.M., 2003.: Rangelands of the arid and semi-arid zones in Uzbekistan. 498 pp.

Gray, F. A., Koch, D. W. and Krall, J. M., 1997. Comparative field reaction of sugarbeet and several cruciferous crops to Nacobbus aberrans. Nematropica, 27: 221-227.

Guma, I. R., M. A. Padrón-Mederos, A. S. Guerra, and J. A. Reyes-Betancort. 2009. Effect of temperature and salinity on germination of Salsola vermiculata L. (Chenopodiaceae) from Canary Islands. Journal of Arid Environmental, 10(1):310-314.

Hageman, J. H., Fowler, J. L., Suzukida, M., Salas, V., & Lecaptain, R., 1988. Analysis of Russian thistle (Salsola species) selections for factors affecting forage nutritional value. Journal of Range Management, 155-158.

Halevy, A. H., 1989. Handbook of flowering, CRC (VolPress, Volume. 6):, pp 553., CRC Press.

Hammiche, V. and K. Maiza. 2006.: Traditional medicine in Central Sahara:Pharmacopoeia of Tassili N’ajjer,. Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 105: 358–367.

Hartwell, J. L., 1969. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia, 32(1): ,30-34.

Hassan, M., M. A. Siddique, M. Sagheer, and M. Aleem. 2005..: Comparative efficacy of ethanol leaf extracts of Amaranthus viridis l. and Salsola baryosma (schultes) and Cypermethrin against Trogoderma granarium (everts). Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, 42: 3-4.

Hegazy, A. K., 1997. Plant succession and its optimization on tar-polluted coasts in the Arabian Gulf region. Environmental conservation, 24(2): 149-158.

Heidari-Sharifabad, H., & Mirzaie-Nodoushan, H., 2006. Salinity-induced growth and some metabolic changes in three Salsola species. Journal of arid environments, 67(4): 715-720.

Holm, L.G., Plucknett, D.L., Pancho, J.V., Herberger, J.P., 1977. The World’s Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Hu, R., Sun, K., Su, X., Pan, Y. X., Zhang, Y. F., & Wang, X. P., 2012. Physiological responses and tolerance mechanisms to Pb in two xerophils: Salsola mbricate Bunge and Chenopodium album L. Journal of hazardous materials, 205: 131-138.

Jafari, M., Kohandel, A., Baghbani, S., Tavili, A., Chahouki, M. Z., Malekian, A., & Pasoojani, N. A., 2011. Comparison of chemical characteristics of shoot, root and litter in three range species of Salsola rigida, Artemisia sieberi and Stipa barbata. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 9(1): 37-46.

Jump, A. S., & Penuelas, J., 2005. Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters, 8(9): 1010-1020.

Khan, K. M., Maharvi, G. M., Abbas khan, A., Hayat, S., Khan, M. T. H., Makhmoor, T, & Shaheen, F., 2003. Three tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant compounds from Salsola foetida. Helvetica chimica acta, 86(2): 457-464.

Khan, M. A., & Qaiser, M., 2006. Halophytes of Pakistan: characteristics, distribution and potential economic usages. Springer Netherlands, (pp.135).

Khan, M. A., & Weber, D. J., 2007. Dormancy, germination and viability of Salsola mbricate seeds in relation to light, temperature and salinity. Seed Science and Technology, 35(3): 595-606.

Khan, M.A. Gul, B. Weber D.J., 2002. Seed germination in the great basin halophyte Salsola iberica Canadian Journal of Botany, 80: 650–655.

Kuhn, U., 1993. Chenopodiaceae. In The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 2 (Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., and Bittrich, V., eds.), Berlin-Heidelberg etc. Springer, pp. 258-281.

Ladeiro, B., 2012. Saline agriculture in the 21st century: using salt contaminated resources to cope food requirements. Journal of Botany, Article ID 310705, 7 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/310705

Lavrenko, E. M., 1962. The main features of botanical geography of the deserts of Eurasia and North Africa. Moscow-Leningrad: 15thKomarov Lecture, Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Leadley P, Pereira HM, Alkemade R, Fernandez-Manjarrés JF, Proença V, Scharlemann JPW, Walpole MJ., 2010. Biodiversity Scenarios: Projections of 21st century change in biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In: Diversity SotCoB, editor. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal: P. 132. (Technical Series no. 50), 132 pages.

Leen, Rosemary. 1991. Climatic associations and establishment of biological control of weed insects. In: Center, Ted D.; Doren, Robert F.; Hofstetter, Ronald L.; Myers, Ronald L.; Whiteaker, Louis D, eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exotic Pest Plants; 1988 November 2 –November 4; Miami, FL. Tech. Rep. NPS/NREVER/NRTR-91/06. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 189-195. [17866].

Lodhi, M. A. K., 1979. Allelopathic potential of Salsola kali L. and its possible role in rapid disappearance of weedy stage during revegetation. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 5(3): 429-437.

Loizzo, M. R., Tundis, R., Statti, G. A., Passalacqua, N. G., Peruzzi, L., & Menichini, F., 2007.: In vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibiting activity of Salsola oppositifolia Desf., Salsola soda L. and Salsola tragus L. Natural product research, 21(9):, 846-851.

Mabberley, D.J., 1997. The plant book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants (2nd ed.) Cambridge University Press, New York, p. 149

Malcolm, C. V., 1994. Use of halophyte forages for rehabilitation of degraded lands. In Halophytes as a resource for livestock and for rehabilitation of degraded lands (pp. 25-41). Springer Netherlands.

Mandaville, J. P., 1990. Flora of Eastern Saudi Arabia, London: Kegan Paul Int, pp 86-91. London: Kegan Paul Int.

Marimuthu, P., Wu, C. L., Chang, H. T., & Chang, S. T., 2008. Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract from the bark of Chamaecyparis mbric var. formosana. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88(8): 1400-1405.

Mendelsohn, R., & Balick, M. J., 1997. Notes on economic plants. Economic botany, 51(3): 328-328.

Mosyakin, S. L. 1996. A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 387-395.

Moyer, J. R., 1992. Alfalfa yields in establishment and subsequent years after herbicide and phosphorus application during establishment. Canadian. Journal of. Plant Science,. 72: 619-625.

Munir, U., Perveen, A., & Qamarunnisa, S., 2014. Comparative Pharmacognostic evaluation of some species of the genera Suaeda and Salsola leaf (Chenopodiaceae). Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 27(5): 1309-1315.

Murad, N., Gintzburger, G., Bounejmate, M., & Nefzaoui, A., 2000. A study on the Syrian steppe and forage shrubs. In Fodder shrub development in arid and semi-arid zones. Volume 1. Proceedings of the Workshop on Native and Exotic Fodder Shrubs in Arid and Semi-arid Zones, 27 October-2 November 1996, Hammamet, Tunisia. (pp. 109-121). International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA).

Nath, V., & Khatri, P. K., 2010. Traditional knowledge on ethno-medicinal uses prevailing in tribal pockets of Chhindwara and Betul Districts, Madhya Pradesh, India. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 4(9): 662-670.

Oba, G., I. Nordal, N.C. Stenseth, J. Stave, C.S. Bjora, J.K. Muthondeki, W.K.A. Bii., 2001. Growth performance of exotic and indigenous tree species in saline soils Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Arid Environment, 47, pp. 499–511

Osman, A. E., Bahhady, F., Hassan, N., Ghassali, F., & Ibrahim, T. A., 2006. Livestock production and economic implications from augmenting degraded rangeland with Atriplex halimus and Salsola vermiculata in northwest Syria. Journal of arid environments, 65(3):, 474-490.

Pakanaev, Y. I., Kattaev, N. S., Shaimardanov, R. A., & Yuldashev, U., 1980: Changes in the alkaloid and flavonoid contents of Salsola richteri. Rastitel’nye Resursy, 16(3), 411-414.

Pyankov, V., Black, C., Stichler, W., & Ziegler, H., 2002. Photosynthesis in Salsola Species (Chenopodiaceae) from Southern Africa Relative to their C4 Syndrome Origin and their African‐Asian Arid Zone Migration Pathways. Plant Biology, 4(1): 62-69.

Pyankov, V., Ziegler, H., Kuz’min, A., & Edwards, G., 2001. Origin and evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) based on anatomical and biochemical types in leaves and cotyledons. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 230(1-2): 43-74.

Radwan, S. S., Al-Awadhi, H., Sorkhoh, N. A., & El-Nemr, I. M., 1998. Rhizospheric hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms as potential contributors to phytoremediation for the oil Kuwaiti desert. Microbiological Research, 153(3): 247-251.

Rasheed, D. M., El Zalabani, S. M., Koheil, M. A., El-Hefnawy, H. M., & Farag, M. A., 2013. Metabolite profiling driven analysis of Salsola species and their anti-acetylcholin esterase potential. Natural product research, 27(24): 2320-2327.

Richter, B. S., Tiller, R. L., and Stutz, J. C., 2002. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal propagules and colonization from abandoned agricultural fields and semi-arid grasslands in riparian flood plains. Applied. Soil Ecology, 20: 227-238.

Safriel, U. N., Volis, S., & Kark, S., 1994. Core and peripheral populations and global climate change. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 42(4): 331-345.

Schillinger, W. F., & Young, F. L., 2000. Soil water use and growth of Russian thistle after wheat harvest. Agronomy Journal, 92(1): 167-172.

Scoggan, H. J., 1957. Flora of Manitoba. Volume 47 of Biological series, Publisher Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 619 pages.

Sharma, A. K., & Tewari, J. C., 2001. Arid zone forestry with special reference to Indian hot arid zone. Encyclopaedia of life support system (ELOSS), UNESCO, Paris.

Sokolowska-Krzaczek, Anna, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak, and Katarzyna Czubkowska. 2009. Variation of phenolic acids from herb and roots of Salsola kali L. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 78.(3): 197-201.

Swart, P., Swart, A. C., Louw, A., & Van Der Merwe, K. J., 2003. Biological activities of the shrub Salsola tuberculatiformis contraceptive or stress alleviator? Bioessays, 25(6): 612-619.

Thomas, D., & Sumberg, J. E., 1995. A review of the evaluation and use of tropical forage legumes in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 54(3): 151-163.

Tite, M. S., Shortland, A., Maniatis, Y., Kavoussanaki, D., & Harris, S. A., 2006. The composition of the soda-rich and mixed alkali plant ashes used in the production of glass. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33(9): 1284-1292.

Toderich, K. N., 2008. Genus Salsola of Central Asian Flora: its structure and adaptive evolutionary trends (Doctoral dissertation, Doctorate thesis. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology).

Toderich, K. N., Shuyskaya, E. V., Ozturk, M., Juylova, A., & Gismatulina, L. I. L. Y. A., 2010. Pollen morphology of some Asiatic species of genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) and its taxonomic relationships. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(SI): 155-174.

Toderich, K. N., Shuyskaya, E. V., Taha, F., Ismail, S., Gismatullina, L. G., & LI, E. V., 2012. Adaptive fruit structural mechanisms of Asiatic Salsola species and its germplasm conservation and utilization. Journal of. Arid Land Studies, 22(1): 73-76.

Toderich, K., Tsukatani, T., Shoaib, I., Massino, I., Wilhelm, M., Yusupov, S, and Ruziev, S., 2008. Extent of salt affected land in Central Asia: Biosaline agriculture and utilization of the salt-affected resources. KIER Discussion Paper, 648.

Tundis, R., Menichini, F., Conforti, F., Loizzo, M. R., Bonesi, M., Statti, G., & Menichini, F., 2009. A potential role of alkaloid extracts from Salsola species (Chenopodiaceae) in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry, 24(3): 818-824.

Wei, Y., Dong, M., Huang, Z. Y., & Tan, D. Y., 2008. Factors influencing seed germination of Salsola affinis (Chenopodiaceae), a dominant annual halophyte inhabiting the deserts of Xinjiang, China. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 203(2): 134-140.

Willis, J. C., 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, 8th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Xiang, Y., LI, Y. B., Zhang, J., Li, P., & Yao, Y. Z., 2007. A new alkaloid from Salsola collina. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 42(6): 618.

Yildiztugay, E., Ozfidan-Konakci, C., & Kucukoduk, M., 2014. The role of antioxidant responses on the tolerance range of extreme halophyte Salsola crassa grown under toxic salt concentrations. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 110, 21-30.

Young, F. L., 1988. Effect of Russian thistle (Salsola iberica) interference on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science, (36): 594-598.

Young, F. L., & Gealy, D. R., 1986. Control of Russian thistle (Salsola iberica) with chlorsulfuron in a wheat (Triticum aestivum) summer-fallow rotation. Weed Science, 318-324.

Young, F. L., & Whitesides, R. E., 1987. Efficacy of postharvest herbicides on Russian thistle (Salsola iberica) control and seed germination. Weed Science, 554-559.

Young, F., Veseth, R., Thill, D., Schillinger, W., Ball, D., 1995. Russian thistle management under conservation systems in PaciWc Northwest crop-fallow regions. PaciWc Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook Series No. 16, Chapter 5-Weed Control Strategies, July 1995

Yumak, H., Ucar, T. and Seyidbekiroglu, N., 2010: Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source. Biomass and Bioenergy, 34(5): 630-636.

Zhu, G. L., Mosyakin, S. L., & Clemants, S. E., 2003. Chenopodiaceae. Flora of China, 5: 351-414.