Evaluation of Distance and Quadratic Indices for Determination of Plant Species Distribution Pattern in Khoosef Rangelands, Birjand, Iran

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article

Authors

1 Assist. Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sarayan, Birjand, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Student, Arid Zone Management, Department of Arid Zone Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), China, Beijing

4 C Professor, Department of Range Management, Range Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

Abstract

One of the major issues examined in the quantitative ecology is the spatial distribution pattern of plant species. Knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns is essential to measure the level of uniformity in the surrounding environment, plant reproduction, and distribution of the seedlings, plant behavioral patterns, coexistence, allelopathic relations, and competition. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to select suitable indicators to determine the spatial distribution of three plant species namely Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Cornulaca monacantha and Stipagrostis plumosa and to evaluate their accuracy in arid and semi-arid rangelands of Birjand. Sampling was taken in the key area of ​​each site with four transects of 100 m using quadrates (with their size proportional to the vegetative form of the plant species) by a stratified random sampling technique in 2014-2015. At each point, the distance from the nearest neighbors, the closest species and species richness were recorded. S. plumosa and S. rosmarinus produced the largest and smallest values as 6.6 and 0.24 plant/m2, respectively. Our results suggested that S. rosmarinus, C. monacantha and S. plumosa follow regular and uniform distribution patterns. The results of the statistical analysis also showed the positive binomial distribution for these species, which further confirm our finding. In total, it has been found that quadratic indicators provide more accurate results regarding plant species distribution patterns as compared with the distance indicators.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abd-EI-Ghani, M., 1998. Environmental correlations of species distribution in arid desert ecosystems of eastern Egypt. Jour. Arid Environ. 38: 297- 313.

Ardakani, M., 2003. Ecology. Tehran Univ. Press. Tehran, Iran. 340 p. (In Persian).

Basiri, R., Sohtabi, H., Mozayan, M., 2003. Statistical analysis of the spatial patterns of tree species in the region of MarivanQamyshl. Iran Jour. Nat. Resource. Iran Jour. Nat. Resour. 59 (3): 579-588. (In Persian).

Basiri, M., Mosaei Sanjarehi, M., 2007. Application and analysis of the distribution pattern of sagebrush fields in Yazd province. Jour. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resour. 11 (40): 117-123. (In Persian).

Borhani, M., Basiri, M., Arzani, H., 2004. Comparison of density estimating methods of Artemisia sieberi in steppe rangelands of Isfahan province. Third conference of range and range management in Iran: 663-674. (In Persian).

Davari, N., Jouri, M. H., Ariapour, A., 2011. Comparison of Measurement Indices of Diversity, Richness, Dominance, and Evenness in Rangeland Ecosystem (Case Study: Jvaherdeh-Ramesar). Jour. Rangeland Science 2(1): 389-398. (In Persian).

Desheng, L., Maggi, K., Peng, G., Qinghua, G., 2007. Characterizing spatial-temporal tree mortality patterns associated with a new forest disease. Forest Ecol. Manag., 253: 220-231.

Ebrahimi, M., Masoodipour, A. Rigi, M., 2015. Role of Soil and Topographic Features in Distribution of Plant Species (Case study: Sanib Taftan Watershed). Ecopersia Jour., 3(1): 917-932. (In Persian).

Fasheng L., Lianjun, Z., 2006. Comparison of point pattern analysis methods for classifying the spatial distribution of Spruce-fir stands in the northeast USA.

Fu-Cheng, Zhiqiang Qu., Jiping, W., Lei, J., 2012. Effect of distribution patterns of Artemisia sphaerocephala on soil wind erosion: A field evaluation of wind speed profile and roughness. Procedia Envi. Sci., 12 (20): 310 – 317.

Jahantab, A., Ghasemi Arian, Y., Sepehri, A., Hanafi, B., YazdanPanah, A., 2012. The distribution pattern of dominant plant species in central Zagros mountain ranges (Case Study: Dishmok in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province). Iranian Jour. Rangeland and Desert Research: 19 (3): 482-489. (In Persian).

Janat Rostami, M., Zare Chahouki, M. A., Azarnivand, H., EbrahimiDorche, Kh., 2009. Analysis of distribution patterns of some plant species in rangelands of Hoze Sultan, Qom Province. Watershed Manage. Res; 84: 72-80. (In Persian).

Johnson, R. B., Zimmer, W.J., 1985. A more powerful test for dispersion using distance measurements. Ecological Indicatators; 66: 1084-1085.

Jouri, M.H., Patil, D., Gavali, R.S., Safaian, N. And Askarizadeh, D., 2011. Assessment of Health Conditions of Mountain Rangeland Ecosystem Using Species Diversity and Richness Indices, Case Study: Central Alborz (Iran). Jour. Plant Ecosystem Conservation: 2(1): 341- 353. (In Persian).

Krebs, C. J. 1999. Ecological methodology. 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley educational Pub. Inc: California; 620 P.

Legendre, P. 2002. The consequences of spatial structure for the design and analysis of ecological field surveys. Echography. 25: 601-615.

Ludwing, J. A., Reynolds, J.F. 1988. Statistical Ecology. Wiley Inter science Pub., USA.

Malhado A. C., Petrere, J. M. 2004. Behavior of dispersion indices in pattern. Detection of a population of Angico, Anadenanthera peregrine. Brazilian Jour. Biology: 64(2):243-249.

MacArthur, R.H., 1965. Patterns of species diversity. Biological reviews, 40(4), pp.510-533.

Moghadam, M. R. 2005. Ecology of terrestrial plants. Tehran University Press; 701 p. (In Persian).

Moghimi, J. 2005. Assessment of some important rangeland species suitable for the development and improvement of rangelands in Iran. Aaron Tehran Publications, Tehran, Iran. 669 p. (In Persian).

Mohebi, Z., Zare-Chahouki, M. A., Tavili, A., Jafari, M. Fahimi-Pour, A. 2012. Comparison of the performance of distance and quadrate indicators in determining the distribution pattern of two rangeland species Astragalus ammodendron and Artemisia sieberi in Markazi Province habitats. Res. Construct. Jour.; 94: 27-35. (In Persian).

Myers, J.H. 1978. Selecting a measure of dispersion. Environment Entomology; 7: 619-621.

Sharifi Najafabadi, H., Soltani, H., Saeidi, Z, Gorjestani, Sh. 2015. Distribution of Crataegus monogyna infested with Yponomeuta padella in the Bazoft Forest of Chaharmahal Bakhtiari Province. Jour. Appl. Ecol., 4(4): 39-48.

Odum E. P. 1999. Ecologia Guanabara Koogan, Rio de jeneiro, RJ., Brazil. 240 p.

Pielou, E. C. 1997. The use of point to distances in the study of the pattern of plant population. Jour. Ecol.; 47:607-613.

Sharafatmandrad, M., Sepehry, A., Barani, H. 2014. Plant Species and Functional Types’ Diversity in Relation to Grazing in Arid and Semi-arid Rangelands, Khabr National Park, Iran. Jour. Rangeland Science, 4(3): 203-215. (In Persian).

Yari, R. 2010. Assessment of environmental factors affecting the distribution of plant communities in arid and semi-arid areas (Case Study: Sarchah-Amari Ranges, Birjand). Master's thesis in Range Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Tehran, 110 pages. (In Persian).