Comparing Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Pedicels and Palm Leaves as a Source for Livestock Feeding by in vitro and in situ Techniques

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Department of cellular and molecular biology, Faculty of nature Sciences, University Abbes Laghrour of Khenchela, 40000. Khenchela, Algeria.

2 Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Med Boudiaf University of M’sila, Bp 166, 28000, M’sila, Algeria.

3 Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña, CSIC-Universidad de León, Departamento de Producción Animal, Universidad de León, 24007 León, Spain.


The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility, and to estimate the in vitro fermentation parameters of palm leaves and pedicels from Ghars palm variety. A rumen in situ technique was also used to examine In vitro Digestible Dry Matter (IDDM), In vitro Digestible Crude Protein (IDCP), and In vitro Digestible Neutral Fiber (IDNF), and rate and extent of gas production. Vetch-oat hay was taken as a reference feed material. The samples were collected in Tolga district (southeast Algeria). The Crude Protein (CP) content of the plant species was low for pedicels and palm leaves (33 and 60 g kg−1 DM, respectively). The highest content of total extractable phenols, tannins and condensed tannins was observed in palm leaves whereas pedicels showed lower concentrations. In vitro digestibility and in situ DM disappearance were slightly different for the examined forages. Analogue trends were observed for the in vitro fermentation kinetics estimated from the gas production curves. Pedicels showed the highest DM effective degradability (ED; assuming a passage rate of 0.03 h-1) whereas palm leaves seemed to be a poorly degradable material with an ED coefficient of 0.39 and 0.14 g g-1DM, respectively. Despite the moderate CP and high fiber content along with in vitro digestibility and in situ DM disappearance found in pedicels, in comparison with vetch oat hay degradation, it indicated that this plant could have a greater nutritional value. Dry matter disappearance after 144 h of incubation was negatively correlated with phenolic compounds and total extractable tannins, suggesting that the in vitro techniques can be appropriate for detecting the presence of anti-nutritional substances in shrubs.


Main Subjects

Adel Eid,M.M., Mohamed Said,A., Cieslak, A., Małgorzata, S.S.,2017. Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro dry and organic matter digestibility of some forage plant species derived from Egyptian rangelands. J of Animal and Plant Sci., 27(5), 1573-1581.
Ammar, H., Lopez, S., Gonzalez, J.S., 2005. Assessment of the digestibility of some Mediterranean shrubs by in vitro techniques. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 119, 323-331.
Andualem, D.,Negesse, T.,Tolera,A., 2016. Chemical Composition, In vitro Organic Matter Digestibility and Kinetics of Rumen Dry Matter Degradability of Morphological Fractions of Stinging Nettle (Urticasimensis). Advances in Biological Research, 10(3),183-190.
Apori, S.O., Castro, F.B., Shand, W.J. and Orskov, E.R., 1998. Chemical composition, in sacco degradation and in vitro gas production of some Ghanaian browse plant. Anim. feed and technol., 76,129-137.
AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis.17th Ed., AOAC International, Washington DC, USA.
Arbouche, S. and Arbouche, H.S., 2008.Date by-products from south–east Algeria, effects of treatment with urea and the mode of storage on their chemical composition and digestibility. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 20(6), 97-105.
Aregheore, E.M., 2000. Chemical composition and nutritive value of some tropical by-product feedstuffs for small ruminants in vivo and in vitro digestibility. Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol., 85,99-109.
Atawodi, S.E., Yakubu, O.E., Umar, I.A., 2013. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Parinaricuratellifolia root. International J. of Agri. Biology, 15, 523-528.
Bernard, L., Marvalin, O., Yang, W., Poncet, C., 1988.Colonisation bactérienne de différents types d’aliments incubées in sacco dans le rumen; conséquences pour l’estimation de la dégradabilité de l’azote. Rep.Nutri. Develop., 28, 105-106.
Bouazza, L., Lopez,S., Boufennara, S., Bousseboua,H., Bodas,R.,2012.Nutritive evaluation of foliage from fodder trees and shrubs characteristic of Algerian arid and semi-arid areas. J. of Anim. and Feed Sci., 21, 521-536.
Boufennara, S., Bouazza, L., Lopez,S., Bousseboua,H., Bodas, R., 2012.Chemical composition and digestibility of some browse species collected from Algerian Arid Rangelands.J. of Spanish Agri. Research, 10(1),88-98.
Boufennara, S., 2012. Effet des tanins sur la fermentescibilité in vitro et la digestibilité in sacco de végétaux et de sous produits de l’agronomie des zones arides; Essai de modélisation desfermentation du microbiote ruminal. Doctoral thesis at the university Mentouri of Constantine. /BOU6192 pdf.
Boufennara, S., Bouazza, L., Lopez, S., Bousseboua, H., Bodas, R.,2014.Rumen degradability of some Algerian browse plant species from arid rangelands. Options Méditerranéennes, Series A., 109,127-130.
Boufennara,S., Bouazza, L., De Vega, A., Fondevela, M., Amanzougarene M., Lopez,S., 2016.In vitro assessement of nutritive value of date palm by-products as feed for ruminants. Emirate J. of food and Agri., 28(10),704-712.
Burt, S., 2004. Essential oils, their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 94, 223-253.
Blümmel, M. and Becker, K., 1997. The degradability of fifty four roughages and neutral detergent fibre as described by gas production and their relationship to voluntary feed intake. British J. Nutri., 77,757-768.
Cabiddu, A.,Decandia, M., Sitzia, M., Molle, G., 2000. A note on the chemical composition and tannin content of some Mediterranean shrubs browsed by Sarda goats In,Ledin, I, Morand-Fehr, P (Eds), Sheep and Goat Nutrition, Intake, Digestion, Quality of Products and Rangelands, Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 52,175-178.
Deffairi, D. and Arhab, R., 2016. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida pungens and Astragalus gombiformis on the aptitudes of ruminal microbiota in small ruminants. African J. of Biotec., 15(43),2424-2433.
Foguekem, D., Tchamba, M.N., Gonwouo, L.N., Ngassam, P., Loomis, M., 2011. Nutritional status of forage plants and their use by elephant in Waza national park. Cameroon Sci Res. Essays,6(17), 3577-3583.
France, J., Dijkstra, J., Dahanoa M.S., Lopez, S., Bannink, A., 2000. Estimating the extent of degradation of ruminant feeds from a description of their gas production profiles observed in vitro, derivation of models and other mathematical considerations. Bri. J.Nutri., 83,143-150.
Frutos, P., Hervas, G., Ramos, G., Giraldez, F.J., Mantecon, A.R., 2002. Condensed tannin content of several shrub species from a mountain area in northern Spain, and its relationship to various indicators of nutritive value Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 95, 215-226.
Gasmi-Boubaker, A., Kayouli, C., Buldgen, A., 2005. In vitro gas production and its relationship to in situ disappearance and chemical composition of Mediterranean browse species Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 123,303-311.
Genin, D., Kadria, A., Khorchani, T., 2004.Valorisation of date palm by-products for livestock feeding in southern Tunisia Potentialities and traditional utilization In, Nutrition and feeding Strategies of sheep and goats under harsh climates Ben salem H, Nefzaoui A, Morand-Fehr P (Eds), CIHEAM, Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 59,221-226.
Julkunen-Tiitto, R., 1985.Phenolics constituents in the leaves of northen willows, methods of analysis of certain phenols. J. Agri. Sci., 131,221-228.
Khazaal, K., Dentinho, M.T., Riberio, J.M., Orskov, E.R., 1993. A comparison of gas production during incubation with rumen contents in vitro and nylon bag degradability as predictors of the apparent digestibility in vivo and the voluntary intake of hays. Anim. Production, 57,105-112.
Longuo, H.F., Chehma, A., OuledBelkher, A., 1989.Quelques aspects botaniques et nutritionnels des pâturages des dromadaires en Algérie In, Séminaire sur la digestion, la nutrition et l’alimentation des dromadaires CIHEAM, Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 2,101-113.
Lopez, S., Carro, M.D., Gonzales, J.S., Overjero, F.J., 1991. Rumen degradation of the main forage species harvested from permanent mountain meadows in Northwestern Spain. J. Agri. Sci., 117,363-369.
Lopez, S., France, J., Dahanoa, M.S., Mould, F., Dijkstra, J., 1999. Comparison of mathematical models to describe disappearance curves obtained using the polyester bag technique for incubating feeds in the rumen. J. of Anim. sci., 77,1875-1888.
Makkar, H.P.S., 2003. Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage a Laboratory Manual Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Makkar, H.P.S., 2000. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual FAO/IAEA Working Document, Vienna, Austria.
Melaka, S., Peters, J., Tegegne, A., 2003. In vitro and in situ evaluation of selected multipurpose trees, wheat bran and Lablab purpurens as potential feed supplements to tef (Eragrotistef) straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 108,159-179.
Mertens, D.R., 1993. Kinetics of cell wall digestion and passage in ruminants In, Forage cell wall structure and digestibility Jung HG, Buxton DR, Hatfield RD, Ralph J (Eds), Madison,WI, USA pp, 13-18
Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. 1988 Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analyses and gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev., 28,7-55.
Norton, B.W., 1994. The nutritive value of tree legumes In, Forage tree legumes in tropical Agri (Gutteridge C, Shelton H, eds) Ed CAB INTERNATIONAL, Wallingford, UK, 177 – 192.
Papanastasis, V.P., Kebaili, A., Karakis, G., Kyriakakis, G., 2004. Role of various plant groups in the sustained use of mountainous Mediterranean rangelands In, Rangeland and Pasture Rehabilitation in Mediterranean Areas, CIHEAM, Cahiers Options Mediterraneennes, 62,353-356.
Pascual, J.J., Fernandez, C., Diaz, J.R., Garces, C., Rubert-Aleman, J., 2000.Voluntary intake and in vitro digestibilty of different date-palm fractions by Murciano-Granadina (Capra Hirsus). J. Arid Environments, 45,183-189.
Porter, L.W., Hrstich, L.N., Chan, B.G., 1986. The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidin and delphinidin. Phytochemistry, 25, 223-230.
SAS Institute INC 2008. SAS/STAT® 9.2 User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC USA.
Schofield, P., Mbugua, D.M., Pell, A.N., 2001. Analysis of condensed tannins, A review Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 91, 21-40
Steel, R.G. and Torrie, J.H., 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics A biometrical approach New York McGraw-Hill Co USA, 666-675.
Theodorou, M.K., Williams, B.A, Dhanoa, M.S., McAllan, A.B., France, J., 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 48, 185-197.
Tilley, J.M.A. and Terry, R.A., 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J.Bri. Grass. Soc., 18,104-111.
Van Soest, P.J., 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Van Soest, P.J., Roberston, J.B, Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74,3583-3597.
Van Soest, P.J., Wine, R.H., Moore, L.A., 1966. Estimation of the true digestibility of forages by the in vitro digestion of cell walls In, Proceedings of the 10th International Grassland Congress, Helsinki, Finland 10,438-441.
Waghorn, G.C. and McNabb, W.C., 2003. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminant. Proc.Nutr Soc., 62, 383-392.
Yayneshet, T., Eik, L., Moe, S., 2009. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and dry matter degradability of exclosure forages in the semi-arid region of Northern Ethiopia. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 148, 12-33.
Volume 9, Issue 4
October 2019
Pages 378-391
  • Receive Date: 28 November 2018
  • Revise Date: 08 March 2019
  • Accept Date: 08 March 2019
  • First Publish Date: 01 October 2019