Chemical Composition, In Situ Degradation, And Fermentation Kinetics Of Some Browse Plant Species Collected From Algerian Arid And Semi-Arid Areas

Document Type: Research and Full Length Article

Authors

1 Departement of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University Mohamed boudiaf of M'sila

2 University Mohamed Boudiaf of M’sila, faculty of Science, Department of SNV, 28000 M’sila, (Algeria)

3 Department of cellular and molecular biology, Faculty of nature Sciences, University Abbes Laghrour of Khenchela, 40000. Khenchela, Algeria.

4 Agricultural Technology Institute of Castilla and León, Subdirectorate for Research and Technology, Valladolid, Spain

5 National Higher School of Biotechnology, University City of Ali Mendjeli P.O Box 66E RP 25100, Ali Mendjeli/Constantine (Algeria).

6 Institute of Livestock of Mountain -CSIC- University of León, Department of Animal Production, University of Léon, 24007 León, Spain

Abstract

The chemical composition and digestibility of twelve plant samples (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Atriplex canescens, Artemesia herba-alba, Astragalus gombo, Calobota saharae Ceratonia siliqua, Gleditsia triacanthos, Hedysarum coronarium, Medicago sativa, Ononis natrix L, Hordeum vulgare and Stipa tenacissima L.) grown in arid and semi-arid areas of Algeria were evaluated (in 2010). Feed components were determined by proximate analysis whereas phenolic and tannin compounds were analyzed by colorimetric procedures. Digestibility was assessed by conventional gravimetric in vitro and in situ methods. In general, crude protein content in dicotyledon (dicots) species was always greater than that in monocotyledon (monocots) grass showing higher Neutral and Acid Detergent Fiber (NDF and ADF) and lower lignin contents than dicots. The tannin concentration varied considerably between species, but in general, the plants investigated in this study had low tannin contents (except for Ceratonia siliqua, Gleditsia triacanthos and Hedysarum coronarium). Monocots showed lower in vitro and in situ, fermentation rate and cumulative gas production than dicots species. This study indicated that a large reserve of plant species in the local flora is available that could be potentially used for livestock feeding. These feeds, if fully exploited, could assist in increasing the level of production and productivity of the livestock resources in the region.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Aharoni, Y., Gilboa, N., Silanikove, N., 1998. Models of suppressive effect of tannins. Analysis of the suppressive effect of tannins on ruminal degradation by compartmental models. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 71: 251-267.

Ammar, H., Lopez, S., Gonzalez, J.S., 2005. Assessment of the digestibility of some Mediterranean shrubs by in vitro techniques. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 119: 323-331.

Ammar, H., Lopez, S., Gonzalez, J.S., Ranilla, M.J., 2004a. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of some Spanish leguminous shrub species. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 115: 327-340.

Ammar, H., López, S., Bochi, O., Garcia, R., Ranilla, M.J., 1999. Composition and in vitro digestibility of leaves and stems of grasses and legumes harvested from permanent mountain meadows at different maturity stages. J Anim Feed Sci., 8: 599-610.

Ammar, H., López, S., González, J.S., Ranilla, M.J., 2004b. Comparison between analytical methods and biological assays for the assessment of tannin-related antinutritive effects in some Spanish browse species. J Sci Food Agr., 84, 1349-1356.

AOAC, International, 2000. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition. Washington, DC

Apori, S.O., Castro, F.B., Shand, W.J., Orskov, E.R., 1998. Chemical composition, in sacco degradation and in vitro gas production of some Ghanaian browse plants. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 76: 129-137.

Bakhashwain, A.A., Sallam, S.M.A., Allam, A.M., 2010. Nutritive Value Assessment of Some Saudi Arabian Foliages by Gas Production Technique in vitro. JKAU: Met., Env. & Arid Land Agric Sci., 21(1): 65-80

Barry, T.N.1989. Condensed tannins: their role in ruminant protein and carbohydrate digestion and possible effects upon the rumen ecosystem. In: Nolan J.V., Lenget R.A., Demeyer D.I. (Eds.), The roles of Protozoa and Fungi in Ruminant Digestion. Pernambul Books, Armidale, NSW, Australia, pp. 153–167.

Barry, T.N., 1987. Secondary compounds of forages. In: Nutrition of Herbivores, Hacker J-B, Ternouth J-H. (Eds). Academic Press, Sydney; pp: 91-120.

Benavides, J.E., 1994. La Investigacion en Arboles Forrajeros. Arboles y Arbustos Forrajeros en America Central, (Ed.J.E. Benavides). CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Informe tecnico. N° 236, Vol.1. Pp.3-28.

Benjamin, R.W., Lavie, Y., Forti, M., Barkai, D., Yonatan, R., Hefetz, Y., 1995. Annual re-growth and edible biomass of two species of Atriplex and Cassia sturtii after browsing. J Arid Environ., 29, 63-84.

Ben Salem, H., Nefzaoui, A., Ben Salem, L., 2002. Supplementation of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Foliage-based diets with barley or shrubs from arid areas (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis and Atriplex nummularia L.) on growth and digestibility in lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 96(1-2): 15-30.

Bhat, K.T., Kannan, A., Sharma, P.O., 2013. Value addition of feed and fodder by alleviating the anti-nutritional effects of tannins. Agric Res., 2:189-206.

Bouazza, L., Bodas, R., Boufennara, S., Bousseboua, H., Lopez, S., 2012. Nutritive evaluation of foliage from fodder trees and shrubs characteristic of Algerian arid and semi-arid areas. J Anim Feed Scien., 21: 521-536.

Boufennara, S., Lopez, S., Bousseboua, H., Bodas, R., Bouazza, L., 2012. Chemical composition and digestibility of some browse plant species collected from Algerian arid rangelands. Span J Agri Res., 10, 88-98.

Brown, D., Ng’ambi, J.W., 2017. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay. Trop Anim Health Prod., 49: 1051-1057.

Cabiddu, A., Decandia, M., Sitzia, M., Molle, G., 2000. A note on the chemical composition and tannin content of some Mediterranean shrubs browsed by Sarda goats. In: Ledin, I., Morand-Fehr, P. (Eds.), Sheep and Goat Nutrition: Intake, Digestion, Quality of Products and Rangelands. Mediterranean Options Books., 52: 175-178.

Cheng, K.J., Stewart, C.S., Dinsdale, D., Costerton, J.W., 1984. Electron microscopy of bacteria involved in the digestion of plant cell walls. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 10: 93-120.

Dann, R.R., Low, S., 1988. Assessing the value of browse plants as alternative sources of fodder. Agric Sci., 1, 20-27.

El-Shatnawi, M.K.J., Abdullah, A.Y., 2003. Composition changes of Atriplex nummularia L. under Mediterranean arid environment. Afr. J. Range Forage Sci., 20, 253-257.

FAO., 1996. World Livestock Production Systems: Current Status, Issues and Trends. In: Seré, C. and Steinfeld, H., Eds., FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 127, FAO, Rome, 217-238.

France, J., Dijkstra, J., Dhanoa, M.S., Lopez, S., Bannink, A., 2000. Estimating the extent of degradation of ruminant feeds from a description of their gas production profiles observed in vitro: derivation of models and other mathematical considerations. Br J Nutr. 83: 143-150.

Huston, J. E. Pinchak, W. E., 1991. Range Animal Nutrition. In grazing management an ecological perspective. Edit: Rodny, K., Heitschmidt., Jerry, W., Stuth. Published: Portland, Or. Timber Press.

Frutos, P., Hervas, G., Ramos, G., Giraldez, F.J., Mantecon, A.R., 2002. Condensed tannin content of several shrub species from a mountain area in northern Spain, and its relationship to various indicators of nutritive value. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 95: 215-226.

Kamalak, A., Guven, I., Kaplan, M., Boga, M., Atalay, A.I., Ozkan, C.O., 2012. Potential Nutritive Value of Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Pods from Different Growing Sites for Ruminants. J Agr Sci. Tech., 14: 115-126.

Kamalak, A., Canbolat, O., Erol, A., Kilinc, C., Kizilsimsek, M., Ozkan, C.O.,Ozkose, E. 2005. Effect of variety on chemical composition, in vitro gas production, metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility of alfalfa hays. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 17:77.

Karabulut, A., Canbolat, O., Kalkan, H., Gurbuzol, F., Sucu, E.,Filya, I.2007.Comparison of In vitro Gas Production, Metabolizable Energy, Organic Matter Digestibility and Microbial Protein Production of Some Legume Hays. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(4): 517-522.

Khanal, R.C., Subba, D.B., 2001. Nutritional evaluation of leaves from some major fodder trees cultivated in the hills of Nepal. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 92: 17-32.

Khazaal, K.A., Boza, J., Orskov, E.R., 1994. Assessment of phenolics-related anti-nutritive effects in Mediterranean browse: A comparison between the use of the in vitro gas production technique with orwithout insoluble polyvinyl-polypirrolidone or nylon bag. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 49: 133-149.

Kumar, R., Singh, M., 1984. Tannins: Their adverse role in ruminant nutrition. J Agric Food Chem. 32: 447-453.

Kumar, R., Vaithiyanathan, S., 1990. Occurrence, nutritional significance and effect on animal productivity of tannins in tree leaves. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 30: 21-38.

Le Houérou, H-N. 1995. Bioclimatologie et biogéographie des steppes arides du Nord de l'Afrique: diversité biologique, développement durable et désertisation. Montpellier: Ciheam. (Options Méditerranéennes Série. Série B : études et recherches n 10; Cheam. Montpelier, 397 p.

López, S., Carro, M.D., Gonzalez, J.S., Ovejero, F.J., 1991. Rumen degradation of the main forage species harvested from permanent mountain meadows in Northwestern Spain. J Agric Sci., 117, 363-369.

Makkar, H.P.S., 2003. Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage. Kluwer Academic
Publishers. Dordrecht (The Netherlands)

McDonald, P., Edwards, R.A., Greenhalgh, J.F.D., Morgan, C.A., 2002. Anim Nutr, 6th edn. Pearson Educational Limited, Edinburgh, Great Britain.

McMahon, L.R., McAllister, T.A., Berg, B.P., Majak, W., Acharya, S.N., Popp, J.D., Coulman, B.E., Wang, Y., Cheng, K.J., 2000. A review of the effects of forage condensed tannins on ruminal fermentation and bloat in grazing cattle. Can. J Plant Sci., 80: 469-485.

McSweeney, C.S., Palmer, B., McNeill, D.O., 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 91: 83-93.

Medjekal, S., Ghadbane, M., Bousseboua, H., 2015. Impact of season of harvest on potential nutritive value, methane production and condensed tannins content of calobota saharae in m´sila, north-central algeria, EJPAU 18(2), #03 http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume18/issue2/art-03.html.

Medjekal, S., Ghadbane, M., et Bousseboua, H. 2016. Influence of seasonal variation on chemical composition and methane production of Calobota saharae in M’sila, north-central Algeria. Agriculture Revue. Special issue 1: 240-245.

Medjekal, S., Ghadbane, M., Bodas, R., Bousseboua, H., Lopez, S., 2018. Volatile fatty acids and methane production from browse species of Algerian arid and semi-arid areas, Journal of Applied Animal Research., 46:1: 44-49.

Menke K.H., Raab L., Salewski A., Steingass H., Fritz D., Schneide, W., 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb). 93: 217–222.

Menke, K.H., Steingass, H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev. 28: 7-55.

Michael, E.C., 2017. Differences between an acid detergent fiber & a neutral detergent fiber. Sciencing. [http://sciencing.com/differences-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber-8723938.html].

Norton, B.W., 1982. Differences between species in forage quality. In: Proceedings of international symposium held at St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia, 24-28 Sep 1981. Nutritional Limits to Animal Production from Pastures.

Nsahlai, I.V., Fon, F.N., Basha, N.A.D., 2011. The effect of tannin with and without polyethylene glycol on in vitro gas production and microbial enzyme activity. S Afr J Anim Sci., 41: 337-344.

Orskov, E.R., McDonald, I., 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage, J Agric Sci Camb., 92: 499-503.

Orskov, E.R., Barnes, B.J., Lukins, B.A., 1980. A note on the effect of different amounts of NaOH application on digestibility by cattle of barley, oats, wheat and maize. J Agric Sci. 94 (2): 271-273.

Paterson, J., Cohran, R., Klopfenstein, T., 1996. Degradable and undegradable protein response of cattle consuming foragebased diets. Proc 3rd Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference (Iudkins MB, Mc Collum III FT, eds.). Proc West Sec Am Soc Anim Sci., 47(1): 94-103.

Pezo, D., 1991. La calidad nutritiva de los forrajes. In : Produccion y utilizacion de forrajes en el tropico. Compendio. Serie Materiales de Ensenanza n : 10.

Priolo, A., Bella, M., Lanza, M., Galofaro, V., Biondi, L., Barbagallo, D., Ben Salem, H., Pennisi, P., 2005. Carcass and meat quality of lambs fed fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) with or without polyethylene glycol or concentrate. Small Ruminant Res., 59, 281-288.

Rebbas, K., Bounar, R., 2014. Études floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales de la région de M’Sila (Algérie). Phytothérapie., 12 (5): 284-291.

Salem, A.F.Z.M., El-Adawy, M.M., Robinson, P.H., 2006. Nutritive evaluations of some browse tree foliages during the dry season, secondary compounds, feed intake and in vivo digestibility in sheep and goats. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 127: 251-267.

Salem, A.F.Z.M., 2005. Impact of season of harvest on in vitro gas production and dry matter degradability of Acacia saligna leaves with inoculum from three ruminant species. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 123-124, 67-79.

SAS., 2000. SAS/STAT® User´s Guide, 8.1. 4th Edition. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC.

Silanikove, N., Gilboa, N., Nitsan, Z., 1997. Interactions among tannins, supplementation, and polyethylene glycol in goats fed oak leaves. Anim Sci., 64: 479-483.

Silanikove, N., Landau, S., Kababya, D., Bruckental, I., Nitsan, Z., 2006; Analytical approach and effects of condensed tannins in carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) on feed intake, digestive and metabolic responses of kids. Livest Sci., 99: 29-38.

Sileshi, Z., Owen, E., Dhanoa, M.S., Theodorou, M.K., 1996. Prediction of in situ rumen dry matter disappearance of Ethiopian forages from an in vitro gas production technique using a pressure transducer, chemical analyses or in vitro digestibility. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 61: 73-87.

Singh, G.P., Oosting, S.J., 1992. A model for describing the energy value of straws. Indian Dairym XLIV, 322-327.

Teferedegne, B., 2000. New perspectives on the use of tropical plants to improve ruminant nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc., 59, 209-214.

Theodorou, M.K., Williams, B.A., Dhanoa, M.S., McAllan, A.B., France, J., 1994. A simple gas production method using apressure transducer to determine the fermentationkinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science andTechnology, 48:185197.

Tolera, A., Khazaal, K., Ørskov, E.R., 1997. Nutritive evaluation of some browse species. Anim Feed Sci Technol., 67: 181-195.

Tilley, J.M.A., Terry, R.A., 1963. A tow stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 18:104-111.

Van Soest, P.J., 1994: Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, NY.

Van Soest, P.J., Wine R.H., Moore L.A., 1966. Estimation of the true digestibility of forages by the in vitro digestion of cell walls. Proc 10th Int Grassland Cong, Helsinki, Finland., 10, 438-441

Williams, B.A., 2000. Cumulative gas-production techniques for forage evaluation. In: Givens, D.I., Owen, E., Axford, R.F.E., Omed, H.M., (Eds.), Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 189-213.

Wilson, J.R., 1994. Cell wall characteristics in relation to forage digestion by ruminants. J Agric Sci Camb., 122: 173-182.