Nutritional Value Determination of Five Plants Species in Darab Rangeland Using Gas Production Technique

Document Type : Research and Full Length Article


1 Department of Animal Sciences, Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Fars, Iran

2 Department of Animal sciences, Zabol University


This investigation was conducted to determine the chemical composition and nutritional value of five dominant plant species in the vegetative stage, namely Artemisia herba-alba, Acer monspessulanum, Amygdalus lycioides, Amygdalus scoparia, and Atriplex leucoclada, in the pastures of Rustaq and Fedami areas, Darab in April, 2020. After collecting samples, the chemical compositions of plants including Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Ether Extract (EE), Ash, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) were determined according to the standard methods. Three 12-month-old Sistani bulls weighing 277±27 kg were used for the degradation test. The CP value ranged from 5.30 (Amygdalus scoparia) to 11.72% (Atriplex leucoclada) while NDF value ranged from 52.62 (Amygdalus lycioides) to 69.05% (Amygdalus scoparia) (P <0.01). After 96 hours of incubation, the highest and lowest gas productions with values of 54.83 and 38.66 (ml/200 mg DM) were related to Amygdalus lycioides and Amygdalus scoparia, respectively. The higher values of gas production were due to lower values of ADF (38.66%) and NDF (52.62%) in Amygdalus lycioides. The highest amounts of Ca (0.28%), P (0.15%), and Mg (0.12%) were recorded in Atriplex leucoclada. Through the gas production technique, the range of organic matter digestibility (OMD), digestible organic matter in dry matter (DOMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) were varied from 36.67 to 53.27%, 34.67 to 49.11%, and 5.57 to 8.08 (MJ/kg), respectively. The highest values of OMD (53.28%), DOMD (49.11%), and ME (8.08 MJ/kg) were recorded in Amygdalus lycioides, which were significantly higher than other studied plants (P<0.01). The nutritional value of Amygdalus lycioides, Atriplex leucoclada, Acer monspessulanum, and Artemisia herba-alba, respectively, were acceptable based on their composition and digestibility. The results of this experiment showed that range plants can meet a part of the livestock nutritional requirements.


Main Subjects

Aghili Poor, F., Bayatkouhsar, J., Ghanbari, F. and Esmaiili, M.M., 2019. Determination of chemical composition, gas production parameters and in vitro Digestibility of Astragalus podolobus in different phenological stages and comparison with some Halophyte Plants. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 12(1): 1-17.
Al-Masri, M.R., 2013. Nutritive evaluation of some native range plants and their nutritional and anti-nutritional components. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 41(4), 427-431.
Arzani, H., Zohdi, M., Fish, E., Amiri, G. Z., Nikkhah, A. and Wester, D., 2004. Phenological effects on forage quality of five grass species. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 57(6), 624-629.
Askar, A.R., Gipson, T.A., Puchala, R., Tesfai, K., Detweiler, G.D., Asmare, A., Keli, A., Sahlu, T. and Goetsch, A.L., 2013. Effects of stocking rate and physiological state of meat goats grazing grass/forb pastures on forage intake, selection, and digestion, grazing behavior, and performance. Livest. Sci., 154, 82–92.
Ball, D.M., Collins, M., Lacefield, G.D., Martin, N.P., Mertens, D.A., Olson, K.E., Putnam, D.J. and Undersander Wolf, M.W., 2001. Understanding forage quality. American Farm Bureau Federation Publication, 1(01), 21 pp.
Bel, J., Legout, A., Saint‑André, L., Hall, S.J., Löfgren, S., Laclau, J.P. and van der Heijden, G., 2020. Conventional analysis methods underestimate the plant-available pools of calcium, magnesium and potassium in forest soils, 1-13.
Bhattarai, S., Biswas, D., Fu, Y.B. and Biligetu, B., 2020. Morphological, physiological, and genetic responses to salt stress in alfalfa: A Review. Agronomy, 10(4), 1-15.
Biel, W. and Jaroszewska, A., 2017. The nutritional value of leaves of selected berry species. Scientia Agricola, 74(5), 405-410.
Blu, M. and Ørskov, E.R., 1993. Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in predicting feed intake in cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40(2-3), 109-119.
Breshears, D.D., Knapp, A.K., Law, D.J., Smith, M.D., Twidwell, D. and Wonkka, C.L., 2016. Rangeland responses to predicted increases in drought extremity. Rangelands, 38(4), 191-196.
Bumb, I., Garnier, E., Bastianelli, D., Richarte, J., Bonnal, L. and Kazakou, E., 2016. Influence of management regime and harvest date on the forage quality of rangeland plants: the importance of dry matter content. AoB Plants, 8, 1-15.
Critchley, C.N.R., Burke, M.J.W. and Stevens, D.P., 2004. Conservation of lowland semi-natural grasslands in the UK: A review of botanical monitoring results from agri-environment schemes. Biological Conservation, 115(2), 263-278.
DiTomaso, J.M., Monaco, T.A., James, J.J. and Firn, J., 2017. Invasive plant species and novel rangeland systems. In Rangeland Systems, Springer, Cham.
Dumont, B., Urra, D.A., Niderkorn, V., Lüscher, A., Porqueddu, C. and Picon-Cochard, C., 2014. Effects of climate change on forage quality of grasslands and their use by grazing animals. 17 pp.
Erfanzadeh, R. and Arzani, H., 2002. Investigation of the effect of phenological stages on forage quality of Trifolium repens and Vicia tetrasperm (L) Schreb species. Research and Construction, 55, 96-98.
Erkovan, H.I., Gullap, M.K., Dasci, M. and Ali, K.O.C., 2009. Changes in leaf area index forage quality and above-ground biomass in grazed and ungrazed rangelands of Eastern Anatolia Region. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15(03), 217-223.
Ferlemi, A.V. and Lamari, F.N., 2016. Berry leaves: An alternative source of bioactive natural products of nutritional and medicinal value. Antioxidants, 5(2), 1-20.
Finch, D.M., Pendleton, R.L., Reeves, M.C., Ott, J.E., Kilkenny, F.F., Butler, J.L., Ott, J.P., Pinto, J.R., Ford, P.L., Runyon, J.B. and Kitchen, S.G., 2016. Rangeland drought: Effects, restoration, and adaptation [Chap. 8].
Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., Elmore, R.D., Limb, R.F. and Bidwell, T.G., 2012. Conservation of pattern and process: developing an alternative paradigm of rangeland management. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65(6), 579-589.
Grace, D., Domínguez-Salas, P., Alonso, S., Lannerstad, M., Muunda, E.M., Ngwili, N.M., Omar, A., Khan, M. and Otobo, E., 2018. The influence of livestock-derived foods on nutrition during the first 1,000 days of life.
Gusmão Filho, J.D., Fries, D.D., de Lana Sousa, B.M., Fagundes, J.L., Backes, A.A., Dias, D.L.S., Pinheiro, S.S.C. and Teixeira, F.A., 2020. Growth dynamics and senescence of digit grass as a response to several canopy heights. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 11(1), 38-52.
Hatfield, J. L. and Prueger, J.H., 2015. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development. Weather and climate extremes, 10, 4-10.
Horwitz, W., 2010. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. Volume I, agricultural chemicals, contaminants, drugs/edited by William Horwitz. Gaithersburg (Maryland): AOAC International, 1997.
Hunt, W. F. and Hay, J.M., 1990. A photographic technique for assessing the pasture species performance of grazing animals. In Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, 51, 191-195.
Iranian Students' News Agency. 2018.
Izaurralde, R.C., Thomson, A.M., Morgan, J.A., Fay, P.A., Polley, H.W. and Hatfield, J.L., 2011. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production. Agronomy Journal, 103(2), 371-381.
Jozi, S.A., Majd, N.M., Rezaian, S. and Tafti, N.J., 2011. Evaluation of ecological capability of Amygdalus Scoparia habitat condition in Bolhasan Dezfol of Iran zone by using of MCDA method. 2011 2nd International Conference on Environmental Engineering and Applications IPCBEE vol.17, IACSIT Press, Singapore, 164-167.
Keba, H.T., Madakadze, I.C., Angassa, A. and Hassen, A., 2013. Nutritive value of grasses in semi-arid rangelands of Ethiopia: Local experience based herbage preference evaluation versus laboratory analysis. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 26(3), 366-377.
Kfoury, N., Scott, E. R., Orians, C.M., Ahmed, S., Cash, S.B., Griffin, T., Matyas, C., Stepp, J.R., Han, W., Xue, D. and Robbat Jr. A., 2019. Plant-Climate Interaction Effects: Changes in the relative distribution and concentration of the volatile tea leaf metabolome in 2014–2016. Frontiers in plant science, 10, 1-10.
Koutsoukis, C., Roukos, C., Demertzis, P.G., Kandrelis, S. and Akrida‐Demertzi, K., 2019. The variation of the chemical composition of the main plant species in a subalpine grassland in northwestern Greece. Legume Science, 1(1), 1-11.
Kulivand, M. and Kafilzadeh, F., 2015. Correlation between chemical composition, kinetics of fermentation and methane production of eight pasture grasses. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 37(1), 9-14.
Kumar, A. and Purohit, A.K., 2020. Biological control and need of a strategic shift in plant disease management. In Plant Defence: Biological Control, Springer, Cham.
Kumar, S., Dagar, S.S., Sirohi, S.K., Upadhyay, R.C. and Puniya, A.K., 2013. Microbial profiles, in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility based on various ratios of roughage to concentrate. Annals of Microbiology, 63(2), 541-545.
Lee, M.A., 2018. A global comparison of the nutritive values of forage plants grown in contrasting environments. Journal of plant research, 131(4), 641-654.
Levine, S. and Pavanello, S., 2012. Rules of the range: natural resources management in Kenya–Ethiopia border areas, 1-4.
Makkar, H.P.S., 2004. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity. In Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivatives, Springer, Dordrecht, 1-13.
McCollum, D.W., Tanaka, J.A., Morgan, J.A., Mitchell, J.E., Fox, W.E., Maczko, K.A., Hidinger, L., Duke, C.S. and Kreuter, U.P., 2017. Climate change effects on rangelands and rangeland management: Affirming the need for monitoring. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 3(3), 1-13.
McDonald, P., Edwards, R.A., Greanhalgh, J.F.D. and Morgan, C.A., 1996. Animal nutrition, 5th ed., Longman, London, UK.
Melesse, A., Steingass, H., Boguhn, J., Schollenberger, M. and Rodehutscord, M., 2012. Effects of elevation and season on nutrient composition of leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera. Agroforestry systems, 86(3), 505-518.
Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneider, W., 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 93(1), 217-222.
Milford, R. and Haydock, K.P., 1965. The nutritive value of protein in subtropical pasture species grown in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 5(16), 13-17.
Mokhtarpour, A., Naserian, A.A., Tahmasbi, A.M. and Valizadeh, R., 2012. Effect of feeding pistachio by-products silage supplemented with polyethylene glycol and urea on Holstein dairy cows performance in early lactation. Livestock Sci. 148, 208–213.
Mountousis, I., Papanikolaou, K., Stanogias, G., Chatzitheodoridis, F. and Roukos, C., 2008. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of rangelands in NW Greece. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 9(3), 547-555.
National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle: 2001. National Academies Press.
Ojah, E.O., 2020. Exploring essential oils as prospective therapy against the ravaging Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine, 2(4), 322-330.
Ørskov, E. and McDonald, I., 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92(2), 499-503.
Ørskov, E. R., Hovell, F. D. and Mould, F.T.A.P., 1980. The use of the nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feedstuffs. Tropical animal production, 5(3), 195-213.
Patton, B.D., Dong, X., Nyren, P.E. and Nyren, A., 2007. Effects of grazing intensity, precipitation, and temperature on forage production. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 60(6), 656-665.
Polley, H.W., Bailey, D.W., Nowak, R.S. and Stafford-Smith, M., 2017. Ecological consequences of climate change on rangelands. In Rangeland Systems, Springer, Cham, 229-260.
Porto, M.O., Paulino, M.F., Valadares Filho, S.D.C., Detmann, E., Cavali, J., Sales, M.F.L., Valente, É.E.L. and Couto, V.R.M., 2012. Nutritional requirements of energy, protein and macro minerals for maintenance and weight gain of young crossbred Nellore× Holstein bulls on pasture. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 41(3), 734-745.
Rabiee, M., 2009. Identification of rangeland plants in Iran. Payame Noor University Press. Fourth edition, 270 pp.
Sabeti, H., 2008. Forests, trees and shrubs of Iran. Fifth edition, Yazd University Press, 80 pp.
SAS Institute. 2007. SAS Users Guide Statistics. Version 9.1 Ed. SAS institute Inc., Cary, Nc. USA
Sgarbossa, J., Schmidt, D., Schwerz, F., Schwerz, L., Prochnow, D. and Caron, B.O., 2019. Effect of season and irrigation on the chemical composition of Aloysia triphylla essential oil. Revista Ceres, 66(2), 85-93.
Shahbazi, K. and Fayaz, M., 2020. Effects of sowing season and cultivation methods on seedling emergence, survivor rate and growth of Astragalus flexilepes L. in rangelands of Kermanshah Province, Iran. Journal of Rangeland Science, 10(3), 244-250.
Somasiri, S.C., Kenyon, P.R., Morel, P.C., Morris, S.T. and Kemp, P.D., 2020. Selection by lambs grazing plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) across seasons. Animals, 10(12), 1-15.
Sommart, K., Parker, D.S., Rowlins, P. and Wanapat, M., 2000. Fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in an In vitro system using cassava, rice straw and dried Ruzi grass as substrates. Asian-Aud. Journal of Animal science, 13, 1084-1093.
Tedeschi, L.O., Schofield, P. and Pell, A.N., 2008. Determining feed quality for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. 2. Evaluating different models to assess gas production measurements. In The 4th Workshop of Modeling in Ruminant Nutrition: Application of the gas production technique, Juiz de for a, MG, Brazil, 1-15.
Towhidi, A., Rostami, F. and Masoumi, R., 2007. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of nine plant species from Semnan rangeland for camel in Iran. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, 233-233.
Van Soest, P.J., 1990. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. I. Preparation of fiber residues of low nitrogen content, Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 73(4), 487–491.
Vickers, H., Gillespie, M. and Gravina, A., 2012. Assessing the development of rehabilitated grasslands on post-mined landforms in northwest Queensland, Australia. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 163, 72-84.
Wood, K., Rubio, H. and Wood, C., 2020. Rangeland management and hydrology. Multifunctional Grasslandsina Changing World, 1, 809-812.
Yahdjian, L., Sala, O.E. and Havstad, K.M., 2015. Rangeland ecosystem services: shifting focus from supply to reconciling supply and demand. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 13(1), 44-51.
Zahak meteorological station statistics.
Zanella, L. and Vianello, F., 2020. Functional food from endangered ecosystems: Atriplex portulacoides as a case study. Foods, 9(11), 1-20.
Volume 12, Issue 2
April 2022
Pages 141-154
  • Receive Date: 10 February 2021
  • Revise Date: 01 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 02 July 2021
  • First Publish Date: 02 July 2021